Peregrine Bird Tours
Bird Tours
Peregrine Bird Tours

Northeast Brazil

PEREGRINE BIRD TOURS


NORTHEAST BRAZIL

1 - 25 NOVEMBER 2013

TOUR REPORT



More than one hundred endemic Brazilian birds occur in the forgotten northeastern corner of Brazil and our tour was aimed at seeing as many of them as we could. Attacked for centuries by its new human colonists, the coastal forests of Brazil that once stretched for over 3,000 kilometres, have now shrunk to small isolated remnants of forest, which protect the most endangered continental flora and fauna, on the entire planet and this is where we spent most of our time. The rest of our time was spent exploring the more inland habitat of the caatinga, dry thorny woodland and scrub intermixed with columnar cacti and large terrestrial bromeliads. It was a very enjoyable and successful, if somewhat tiring tour. None of us will ever forget our memorable sightings of the stunningly attractive Araripe Manakin, the stately Lear's Macaw and the tiny Hooded Visorbearer. The male Araripe Manakin performed at eye-level at close range, leaving us totally speechless. Several impressive Lear's Macaws offered lengthy scope views and the exquisite male Hooded Visorbearer showed off its amazing array of colours in its special habitat on the Chapada Diamantina. We also observed the rare and little-known White-collared Kite, we were totally spoiled by the views we had of the unique Great Xenops and the recently described Pink-legged Graveteiro. Other quality birds included King Vulture, White-browed Guan, Red-legged Seriema, Pygmy Nightjar, Ruby-topaz Hummingbird, White-winged Potoo, Ochraceous Piculet, Grey-breasted Parakeet, Golden-tailed Parrotlet, Red-shouldered Spinetail, Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, Pectoral Antwren, Slender Antbird, White-browed Antpitta, Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant, Minas Gerais Tyrannulet, White-winged Cotinga, Eastern Striped Manakin, Scarlet-throated and Seven-coloured Tanagers, Pale-throated Pampa-Finch and Yellow-faced Siskin. We saw 378 species of birds, which included a splendid selection of rarely observed endemics, superb specialities and barely-known birds, as well as a good sprinkling of recently described species!

Our tour to northeastern Brazil begin in Fortaleza, in the extreme northeast corner in the small state of Ceara, where we spent the night at a comfortable hotel. The following morning while loading up our luggage we observed the introduced Feral Pigeon, Tropical Kingbird and the introduced House Sparrow. We then headed for Serra de Baturite, an isolated mountain range in the far north of Ceara, we drove through a huge expanse of dry caatinga and extensive groves of cashew-nut trees along the way. Birds along the roadside during the journey included both Great and Cattle Egrets, lots of Black and Turkey Vultures, several Southern Caracaras, colourful Wattled Jacanas, good numbers of Southern Lapwings, showy Yellow-chevroned Parakeets, lots of Smooth-billed Anis and a few Fork-tailed Palm-Swifts. A short roadside stop produced good looks at Swallow-tailed Hummingbird, Cattle Tyrant, Great Kiskadee, Southern Rough-winged Swallow, Sayaca Tanager and the diminutive Bananaquit.

Upon our arrival at Serra de Baturite we checked into our comfortable hotel and spent the afternoon birding in the surrounding forest, were we saw an excellent selection of forest birds which included superb scope views of a perched Gray Hawk, Ruddy Ground-Dove, the critically endangered Gray-breasted Parakeet, Squirrel Cuckoo, the diminutive Reddish Hermit, Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Blue-crowned Trogon, the range-restricted Ochraceous Piculet, Lesser Woodcreeper, Wing-banded Hornero, a male Great Antshrike, Black-capped Antwren, Slender-footed Tyrannulet, Common Tody-Flycatcher, Masked Water-Tyrant, both Social and Boat-billed Flycatchers, Golden-crowned Warbler, Moustached and Southern House Wrens, Rufous-bellied, Pale-breasted and Creamy-bellied Thrushes, Epaulette Oriole, Palm, Burnished-buff and stunning Red-necked Tanagers, Blue Dacnis and Violaceous Euphonia. At dusk we enjoyed good looks at several Proboscus Bats flying just above our heads, along the track in the forest.

We also spent the following morning birding in the beautiful forests of the Serra de Baturite, where we slowly picked out the much sought after specialities. It was rather windy and cloudy and the
birds were not too keen to show themselves, but it soon became sunnier and the wind finally dropped. We enjoyed good looks at the endangered White-browed Guan, flocks of Sick's Swifts were flying above the forest, flowering shrubs attracted Rufous-breasted Hermit and Glittering-throated Emerald. We enjoyed good looks at the attractive Blonde-crested Woodpecker, a pair of Pale-legged Horneros walked ahead of us on the track, the range-restricted Gray-headed Spinetail popped up on the top of a bush for us and Ian pointed out the rarely observed Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, feeding on the track ahead of us. We found several Planalto Tyrannulets, the rarely observed Smoky-fronted Tody-Flycatcher, one or two Piratic Flycatchers, several Gray-breasted Martins, a small flock of beautiful Orange-headed Tanagers, Purple-throated Euphonia and the decidedly uncommon Pectoral Sparrow.

In the afternoon we had a long drive southwards to Crato, however, we broke the long drive with a couple of roadside birding stops, at a couple of wetlands. New birds for the tour included several Greater Rheas, a few Least Grebes, a couple of Snowy Egrets, a small number of Neotropic Cormorants, a flock of White-faced Whistling-Ducks, several splendid Lesser Yellow-headed Vultures, a few Snail Kites, several Roadside Hawks, a couple of showy Savanna Hawks and the beautifully plumaged American Kestrel. We also saw a couple of Limpkins, attractive Black-necked Stilts, a single Solitary Sandpiper, a migrant from North America, a few Common Gallinules, small numbers of Eared Doves and Picui Ground-Doves, a fine flock of Cactus Parakeets, a couple of Yellow-chinned Spinetails, the stunning Caatinga Cacholote, the localised Caatinga Puffbird, a smartly attired Black-backed Water-Tyrant, a very attractive White-headed Marsh-Tyrant, several Chalk-browed Mockingbirds, small flocks of the endemic White-naped Jay, several endemic Red-cowled Cardinals and Chestnut-capped Blackbird. We also enjoyed a prolonged birding stop at a large wetland close to the town of Iguatu. Here we found three very uncommon species of waterfowl, Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Comb Duck and Southern Pochard. There was also a supporting cast of Pied-billed Grebe, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, Brazilian Teal, White-cheeked Pintail, White-winged Swallow, Grassland Yellow-Finch, White-throated Seedeater and Blue-black Grassquit.

Continuing our journey southwards, new birds for the tour observed along the roadside included Striated Heron, the stunningly attractive Aplamado Falcon, a smart looking Purple Gallinule, a family party of Guira Cuckoos and a Ringed Kingfisher, before arriving at our hotel in Crato.

Dawn found us birding along a sandy track on the plateau of the Chapada do Araripe, where we explored the deciduous dry woodland. One of the main target species here was the Great Xenops and in no time at all, we were soon watching this very large and truly magnificent species, with its bizarre bill, at it passed by very close to us. The other prize bird of this area is the White-browed Antpitta, later in the morning we heard it calling and try as we may, only half of the group managed to get on to this ultra skulker. However, later in the tour we all managed to see if very well. We also enjoyed great scope views of a Burrowing Owl, flushed a Common Pauraque from its day-time roost, enjoyed good looks at a large Green-barred Woodpecker, admired the localised Red-shouldered Spinetail and watched a Common Thornbird building its large, distinctive nest. We enjoyed watching the uncommon Greater Wagtail-Tyrant, the brilliant colours of the Campo Troupial took our breath away, we were thrilled to get good looks at the very uncommon Scarlet-throated Tanager and we greatly admired the vivid red, erectile coronal crown stripe of the Pileated Finch. We also found both Silvery-cheeked and Caatinga Barred Antshrikes, Stripe-backed Antbird, Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant, the range restricted Pale Baywing, Cinnamon Tanager, the beautiful Ultramarine Grosbeak, Tropical Gnatcatcher and Rufous-collared Sparrow. It had been a wonderful mornings birding and we headed back to our hotel for lunch.

Following a very fine lunch we did a little birding from the balcony of our hotel, where we added Little Woodpecker and the delightful Olivaceous Elaenia. In the afternoon we went birding in a nearby area of parkland. Our main quarry here was the recently discovered and exquisitely
plumaged Araripe Manakin. It did not take us long to find the bird and enjoy super looks at this very special bird, we even watched a pair building a nest. It was not at all surprising that this species was voted `Bird of the Tour`. There was also a supporting cast of other new birds for the tour, not the least of which, was the range-restricted Ash-throated Casiornis. Other new birds here included the beautiful Planalto Hermit, several Glittering-bellied Emeralds, the very attractive Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Straight-billed Woodcreeper, the showy Yellow-bellied Elaenia, the unobtrusive Southern Scrub-Flycatcher, the rather secretive Swainson's Flycatcher, a Flavescent Warbler performed very well for us, we saw our first of many Shiny Cowbirds and a male White-lined Tanager. Here we also enjoyed good close looks at the first of many White-tufted Marmosets, which were a real delight.

We spent all of the following day birding in the `badlands` of northern Bahia, a harsh area of extremely arid desert country, where our main target bird was the critically endangered Lear's Macaw. Our destination was a fazenda (farm) whose owner has set up a feeding station for the Lear's Macaw. Every morning the farmer places ears of corn in an area of trees on his property and every morning a small flock of these wonderful birds come in to feed on them. We arrived mid-morning and then spent a delightful hour or so observing the antics of more than a dozen superb Lear's Macaws, most were busily feeding on `corn on the cob`, something I am quite partial to myself ! Others were quite content to sit in the shade preening. It was wonderful to watch these huge cobalt-blue parrots and in the background, we could make out the blood-red coloured cliffs, where these beautiful birds breed. Reluctantly we dragged ourselves away from the macaws, there were other goodies in this area and we set about finding them. We soon found a Red-legged Seriema walking along the side of the road, found several perched Picazuro Pigeons, enjoyed extended scope views of a pair of Blue-winged Macaws, found a small flock of Blue-winged Parrotlets, enjoyed close scope views of a Crimson-crested Woodpecker, admired one or two Narrow-billed Woodcreepers, much appreciated a pair of Lesser Wagtail-Tyrants, saw several stunning White Monjitas, saw both Brown-crested and Short-crested Flycatchers, had lengthy looks at a Rufous-browed Peppershrike and a Solitary Black Cacique flew across the road in front of our bus. We stayed in the area until nightfall and were rewarded with very good looks at several Least Nighthawks and a splendid Scissor-tailed Nightjar.

We spent the whole of the following day birding in dry caatinga, our main target bird for this area was the endangered and range restricted Pectoral Antwren, about mid-morning we heard one calling and we were able to track it down and enjoy good looks at it. Other new birds for the tour in this area included a Spotted Nothura, who ran across the road in front of the bus, we enjoyed surprisingly good looks at a Barred Forest-Falcon, in flight and perched. We watched a couple of Blue-crowned Parakeets, observed a few Ruby-topaz Hummingbirds, had good looks at both Sooty-fronted and Pale-breasted Spinetails, greatly admired a male Black-bellied Antwren, observed the very uncommon Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, a Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet was keen to get on to our list, we were pleased to find the endemic Gray-eyed Greenlet, had good looks at the Long-billed Wren, admired the showy White-browed Blackbird and saw the rather plain Grassland Sparrow. We then drove eastwards towards the coast and slowly the dry caatinga became greener as we neared the coast. The countryside was abloom with yellow flowering Ipe (Tabebuia impetiginosa) and blue Jacarandas.

The following day we spent the whole day exploring Murici Forest, a private reserve of hundreds of hectares of Atlantic coastal rainforest, surrounded by an endless sea of sugar-cane plantations. Fortunately for us the weather had been dry and our 4 wheel-drive vehicles had no problems getting us up the mountain and into the private reserve. Before arriving at the reserve, new birds in the farmland included a couple of splendid Rufescent Tiger-Herons, the very impressive Laughing Falcon, several Red-shouldered Macaws, the very attractive and endemic Jandaya Parakeet, a Green Kingfisher, the attractive Cliff Flycatcher, several interesting Black-capped Donacobius and a couple of Wedge-tailed Grass-Finches. Inside the reserve the birding was quite challenging, but in the end we did quite well. A female Black-throated Mango perched for some time, allowing us all to have a good look at it, the splendid Black Jacobin showed very well, as did the diminutive Golden-spangled Piculet. We did very well for antwrens, enjoying good looks at Silvery-flanked, Rufous-winged and Southern White-fringed. We also enjoyed good looks at an isolated race of White-backed Fire-eye and we found leks of no less than three different species of manakins, Red-headed, White-bearded and Blue-backed. We also saw an isolated race of the White-bellied Tody-Tyrant, enjoyed good looks at the very secretive Grayish Mourner, saw a Long-billed Gnatwren, had good views of the silvery-breasted race of the Opal-rumped Tanager and observed our first Buff-throated Saltators.

We spent the early part of the following morning birding in the grounds of our hotel at Uniao dos Palmares. Here we enjoyed great scope views of a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, had very close looks at an Olivaceous Woodcreeper, saw the Ochra-faced Tody-Flycatcher, the well named Streaked Flycatcher and the attractive Guira Tanager.

We spent the afternoon birding in farmland which backed on to a remnant patch of rainforest. New birds in this area included several attractive Yellow-headed Caracaras, a few Pale-vented Pigeons, one or two Scaled Doves, we enjoyed good scope views of a Striped Cuckoo, in full song, watched a displaying Yellowish Pipit, had excellent looks at Bran-colored Flycatcher, a Dusky-capped Flycatcher popped into view, we saw a small number of Barn Swallows, a migrant from North
America, observed several splendid Hooded Tanagers and a flock of introduced Common Waxbills.

We spent the following day birding in remnant pockets of rainforest around Rio Formoso. The birding was not easy, but one by one, we slowly prised the specialities out of the forest. We found the critically endangered White-collared Kite, the beautifully plumaged Black-eared Fairy, a splendid Lineated Woodpecker, a very active Streaked Xenops, a fine pair of Black-tailed Tityras and the attractive Yellow Tyrannulet. We were left short of breath by the beauty of the endemic Brazilian Tanager, the male was a fireball of bright red, flashing through the forest. We also enjoyed the beautiful Flame-crested Tanager, the stunning and endemic Seven-colored Tanager and the more widespread Yellow-bellied Seedeater.

The following morning was spent birding in remnant rainforest patches around Rio Formoso. It was slow going, but we did reap some nice rewards. A flock of rare and endemic Golden-tailed Parrotlets, flew directly in front of us, a male Alagoas Antwren, a rare Brazilian endemic that is restricted to this tiny area, came in to tape very well and we had good looks at the striking Red-legged Honeycreeper. The rest of the day was spent travelling south along the coast, heading for Estancia. At dusk, in a patch of rainforest close to Estancia we taped in the nocturnal Common Potoo, which we saw very well.

We spent the early part of the following morning birding in sandy soil rainforest along the coast, but it was hard going and the only new bird for the tour was a very attractive Amazonian Trogon. Moving a little closer to the coast we did some birding in an extensive palm grove, where we fared rather better, a Red-winged Tinamou walked amongst the palm trees, we enjoyed good scope views of both Golden-capped and Peach-fronted Parakeets and a pair of Orange-winged Parrots flew overhead and we enjoyed good looks at a close Amazon Kingfisher. Moving to the coast itself we had a quick look along the mudflats which produced a couple of Little Blue Herons and a few Whimbrels and Willets, both migrants from North America. We then had a long drive inland to the rugged Chapada Diamentina National Park. The only new birds of interest during the long drive were a pair of Wood Storks and a magnificent Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle, which soared overhead. While filling our vehicle with diesel towards the end of the day, there were large numbers of White-collared Swifts flying overhead.

We spent all of the following day birding in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, an area of dry arid scrub, which is home to a variety of cactus and terrestrial bromeliads. The weather was not good at first, with low cloud and a little drizzle, but fortunately it soon brightened up and so did the birding and we enjoyed a fantastic days birding. We enjoyed very good looks at the uncommon White-shouldered Fire-eye, saw the rarely observed Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant, the unobtrusive Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, the tiny Hangnest Tody-Tyrant, the widespread Red-eyed Vireo, small flocks of Chopi Blackbirds, a lovely male Lowland Hepatic Tanager and best of all, the rare and endemic Sao Francisco Sparrow. We then climbed up a rocky escarpment and onto a small plateau in search of the rare and endemic Hooded Visorbearer. In no time at all, we were soon watching a splendid male, the scope views of this magnificent hummingbird, where out of this world. This bird only occurs in this tiny area of Brazil. Here we also observed a Plain-crested Elaenia, the attractive Velvety Black-Tyrant and the range-restricted Pale-throated Pampa-Finch. The last target bird of the morning was the recently described (2007) and extremely range restricted Sincora Antwren. Following a little searching we also obtained good close looks at this beautiful species of antwren. It had been a wonderful mornings birding and we were very pleased to go and enjoy a very fine lunch.

As usual, the afternoon birding session was slow going and the only new birds which we found were a splendid adult King Vulture circling overhead, an obliging Greenish Elaenia and a stunningly attractive Tropical Parula. At dusk, we managed to tape in a very co-operative Tropical Screech-Owl and a few Short-tailed Nighthawks flew overhead.

We spent the following day birding in a lovely stretch of forest on the edge of the Diamantina National Park. An Ochre-cheeked Spinetail showed very well, as did a fine looking Gray Elaenia, we enjoyed watching a couple of Fork-tailed Flycatchers, we found a small flock of Blue-and-white Swallows, several Brown-chested Martins, a small flock of Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finches, a splendid Black-throated Saltator and a pair of Plumbeous Seedeaters. However, by far the best find of the day was a pair of rare and endemic Minas Gerais Tyrannulets. They were part of a mixed species feeding flock feeding in the canopy of the forest. Fortunately, the forest was not very high and we were able to see them well, we could clearly see the rufous cheeks, two bright yellow wing bars and bright yellow underparts. This sighting is considerably further north than any previous sightings, it is an important range extension for a bird that is critically endangered, due to destruction of habitat. I also had a quick look at a distant Bearded Capuchin, while birding in the forest today.

We spent the following morning birding in an area of cerrado, where we found two new birds for the tour the attractive Rusty-backed Antwren and the shrike-like White-banded Tanager. Much of the rest of the day was taken up by the long drive south-eastwards, heading for Boa Nova. We broke the long drive with a little roadside birding which produced White-tailed Hawk, Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Spix's Spinetail, Gray Monjita and Green-winged Saltator.

We spent the early part of the following morning birding in a patch of forest not far from our hotel. New birds for the tour included a Golden-green Woodpecker, a striking Yellow-olive Flycatcher, a couple of Variegated Flycatchers and good looks at the Chestnut-vented Conebill. We then drove to Boa Nova, arriving late in the afternoon. We then birded an area known as the hummingbird gardens, new birds for the tour included the uncommon Pygmy Nightjar at its daytime roost, a few Sapphire- Spangled Emeralds, the beautiful Campo Flicker and the uncommon Yellow-browed Tyrant.

The Atlantic rainforest at Boa Nova proved to be the birdiest day of the tour, we observed more than 100 species of birds and it was a truly memorable day. The birds just kept coming throughout the day and the majority of the sightings were really good. We spent the whole day birding along the tracks in the forest. A Thrush-like Woodcreeper climbed up the trunk of a tall tree, a Rufous Hornero walked along the track ahead of us, three endemic spinetails, Rufous-capped, Bahia and Pallid, crept around in the undergrowth, the endemic Striated Softtail made up part of a mixed-species canopy feeding flock, as did White-collared, Buff-fronted and White-eye Foliage-gleaners. A male Spot-breasted Ant-vireo gleaned the foliage at eye-level, the rare and endemic Narrow-billed Antwren foraged in the undergrowth, along with a Ferruginous Antbird. A delightful male Scaled Antbird crept around on the forest floor, a pair of Rio de Janeiro Antbirds popped up in front of us and the rare and endemic Slender Antbird showed very well, a Green-backed Becard sat on a branch over the track and a White-crested Tyrannulet was keen to show off his white coronal crown stripe. A Sepia-capped Flycatcher perched close by, a Gray-headed Tody-Flycatcher came in to have a look at us, the bright yellow rump of a Whiskered Flycatcher attracted us to its presence, a tiny White-throated Spadebill sat motionless in the undergrowth, a Long-tailed Tyrant made a dash for an insect above our heads and a Sirystes called loudly from the canopy. The uncommon Gray-hooded Attila popped into view, a Masked Yellowthroat crept through the undergrowth, a White-necked Thrush perched in a tree close by, Rufous-headed Tanagers foraged in the canopy, a small flock of Saffron Finches fed in an open area of grassland and the very uncommon and endemic Dubois's Seedeater also showed very well.

The following morning we began the long drive southwards to the very popular seaside resort of Porto Seguro, during the drive we added Plumbeous Kite and Yellow-rumped Cacique to our ever growing trip list. At mid-day we arrived at our beautiful hotel on the seafront and enjoyed a particularly fine lunch. Following a short siesta, we spent the rest of the afternoon birding in the
Veracel Reserve, which protects a large area of Atlantic lowland rainforest, growing on sandy soil. It is a private reserve owned by the company Veracel, an important eucalyptus harvesting company, which produces industrial cellulose. Gray-rumped Swifts flew above the forest canopy, a Hook-billed Hermit and a Rufous-throated Sapphire fed on flowering shrubs, several Swallow-winged Puffbirds perched conspicuously on open branches, a Bahia Antwren foraged in the mid-canopy, a male White-crowned Manakin showed very well, a Gray-hooded Flycatcher was particularly obliging and we had good looks at a good number of Red-rumped Caciques. We also added one new mammal today a Crab-eating Fox crossed the track ahead of us on two separate occasions.

The following morning we returned to the Veracel Reserve, to see what else we could find here.
New birds for the tour included the very uncommon Blue-throated Parakeet, a couple of Plain Parakeets, the critically endangered Red-browed Parrot, we enjoyed super close looks at a Violet-capped Woodnymph, were very fortunate to find a White-chinned Sapphire perched high in the canopy, we found a very obliging Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike and a couple of Double-collared Seedeaters. We returned to our hotel for lunch and following a short siesta break, we went back to the Veracel Reserve, where we added Band-tailed Antwren, Screaming Piha, Turquoise Tanager and Yellow-green Grosbeak. After dark we tried for the extremely rare White-winged Potoo, but unfortunately without any success. As we were driving out of the reserve, a White-winged Potoo flew in front of the bus, almost colliding with us. Unfortunately, it all happened so quickly, that not everyone saw it. We did have one new mammal today, the Southern American Coati.

The early hours of the following morning found us back at the Veracel Reserve, where we managed to pick up a few new birds for the tour. A small flock of Scaly-headed Parrots flew overhead, we enjoyed good looks at a perched Channel-billed Toucan, we had a couple of frustratingly quick glimpses of the very attractive White-winged Cotinga and we had stunningly close looks at the rarely observed Eastern Striped Manakin. Much of the rest of the day was taken up by the drive to
Serra Bonita Reserve, which means Beautiful Mountain, and indeed it was, blanketed in untouched Atlantic coastal rainforest. Once we arrived there we settled in to our very pleasant accommodation and then birded our way a few hundred metres from the accommodation block to the reserve headquarters and dining room. In the rainforest we added Pale-browed Treehunter, both Blue and Pin-tailed Manakins and a nesting Tropical Pewee. Here we also saw a small troop of very endangered Wied's Black-tufted-ear Marmosets, just a few metres away from us. We then spent the rest of the afternoon watching the bird feeders at the dining room. We enjoyed point blank looks at Sombre Hummingbird, saw the Chestnut-crowned Becard incredibly well and Azure-shouldered, Golden-chevroned and Green-headed Tanagers, Red-crowned Ant-tanager and Green Honeycreeper all came in to the feeders, which allowed us to see them at very close quarters.

We spent all of the next day birding at various altitudes in the Serra Bonita Reserve and it was without doubt, one of the best birding days of the tour. New birds appeared at regular intervals throughout the day. A Plumbeous Pigeon flew into a nearby tree and we were able to enjoy good scope views of it, we taped in a splendid Least Pygmy-Owl, enjoyed very close looks at a Crescent-chested Puffbird, saw the Spot-billed Toucanet very well, admired the red-throated race of the Yellow-throated Woodpecker and the White-throated Woodcreeper performed brilliantly for us. We saw a recently discovered and still undescribed species of treehunter, enjoyed good looks at the beautiful Spot-backed Antshrike, saw both Star-throated and Streak-capped Antwrens, we were very fortunate to enjoy good looks at the seldom seen Sharpbill, saw the range-restricted Bahia Tyrannulet, enjoyed close looks at a Euler's Flycatcher and a Bright-rumped Atilla, we saw the Yellow-legged Thrush very well, a male Sooty Grassquit and the attractive Black-throated Grosbeak. We also saw the extremely endangered Yellow-breasted Capuchin, we watched it break off a twig which had a Hangnest Tody-Tyrant's nest on it, before scampering off into the forest, to eat the contents at leisure.

After breakfast the following morning we packed our bags and reluctantly left the well named Serra Bonita Reserve, but not before I had seen a Minute Hermit. On our way down the mountain we stopped at the nest site of the recently described and very rare, Pink-legged Graveteiro. After some time we all enjoyed very close looks at this great rarity. We then set off for the Michelin Reserve, which has huge areas of Atlantic rainforest extending for more than 3,000 hectares, amongst 7,000 hectares of rubber plantations, which produces the rubber for the famous Michelin tyres. We broke the long drive with a birding stop in rainforest, close to Itacare. Here we added three new birds to our now very large trip list. We enjoyed good looks at a Zone-tailed Hawk, which flew above our heads, imitating the flight of the Turkey Vulture, we saw the Blue-chinned Sapphire at very close quarters and this was followed by great looks at a pair of very attractive Yellow-backed Tanagers.

In the late afternoon we arrived at the Michelin Reserve and did a little birding at a small wetland inside the reserve. New birds for the tour included Blackish Rail, super close looks at a pair of Rufous-sided Crakes, who responded well to tape playback, we saw a few White-rumped Swallows, a pair of Masked Gnatcatchers and a beautiful Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch. At dusk several Free-tailed Bats above our heads.

A final morning in the Michelin Reserve produced four very good new birds for us, Chestnut-backed Antshrike, the endemic Salvadori's Antwren, the recently rediscovered Bahia Tapaculo and the endemic and very rarely observed Yellow-faced Siskin. We spent all afternoon driving back to Salvador, where we arrived after dark at our very pleasant hotel.

Somewhat surprisingly, in the grounds of our hotel the following morning, Michael pointed out two new birds to us, several Black-crowned Night-Herons and a pair of Tropical Mockingbirds, which rounded out a very successful tour, to this little known corner of Brazil.

SYSTEMATIC LIST

RHEAS RHEIDAE
Greater Rhea Rhea americana We were very fortunate to observe small numbers close to Quixada, in Ceara and close to Conudos, in Bahia.

TINAMOUS TINAMIDAE
Red-winged Tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens A single bird observed in a palm grove, close to  
Estancia, in Sergipe.
Spotted Nothura Nothura maculosa A single bird ran across the road in front of our bus, on the 
road between Conudos and Jeremoabo, in Bahia.

GREBES PODICIPEIDAE
Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus Small numbers observed at a couple of wetlands, close to 
Quixada, in Ceara.
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps Small numbers observed on a large wetland close to
Iguatu, in Ceara.

CORMORANTS PHALACROCORACIDAE
Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus Small numbers encountered throughout the 
tour.

HERONS, EGRETS AND BITTERNS ARDEIDAE
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea Small numbers observed on mudflats close to Estancia, in
Sergipe and this was followed by a second sighting of small numbers on mudflats close to
Itacare, in Bahia.
Snowy Egret Egretta thula Small numbers regularly encountered throughout the tour. The Latin 
word `thula` is an Amur Indian name for the Black-necked Swan, erroneously given to the
Snowy Egret!
Great Egret Ardea alba Regularly encountered in small numbers at ponds and lakes throughout 
the tour.
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Common and widespread throughout the whole of the country.
Striated Heron Butorides striata Small numbers observed at a number of wetlands.
Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax Michael pointed out a small number of these 
birds in the grounds of our hotel at Salvador, in Bahia.
Rufescent Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma lineatum We observed two birds along a small stream, in 
farmland close to the Murici Forest Reserve and we saw another at a small swamp at Cachocira Linda, close to Palmares, both sightings occurred in Alagoas.

STORKS CICONIIDAE
Wood Stork Mycteria americana We observed a couple of birds at a small lake, close to the town 
of Ipire, in Bahia.

DUCKS, GEESE AND SWANS ANATIDAE
Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis We found a good sized flock of this 
species, at a large wetland close to Iguatu, in Ceara.
White-faced Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna viduata We found good numbers of this species at a
wetland close to Quixada, at the large wetland close to Iguatu, both in Ceara and again at a
small wetland close to Arataca in Bahia.
Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor A few birds present at the large wetland close to
Iguatu, in Ceara.
Comb Duck Sarkidiornis sylvicola A recent split from the Knob-billed Duck which occurs in Africa and Asia. We observed several pairs at the large wetland close to Iguatu, in Ceara and we saw a few more birds on a farm dam close to Canudos, in Bahia.
Southern Pochard Netta erythrophthalma A rare bird in Brazil, we saw half a dozen pairs at the 
large wetland close to Iguatu, in Ceara.
Brazilian Teal Amazonetta brasiliensis Small numbers observed at a number of wetlands 
throughout the tour.
White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis Half a dozen or so of this uncommon species were 
observed very well at the large wetland close to Iguatu, in Ceara.

NEW WORLD VULTURES CATHARTIDAE
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus Commonly encountered everywhere, seen on every day of the 
tour.
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura A very common bird throughout Brazil, which we saw on almost 
every day of the tour.
Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes burrovianus We observed this species on many 
occasions, mainly in more open habitats.
King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa Somewhat surprisingly, we enjoyed four sightings, all of adult 
birds, which we saw very well indeed.

HAWKS, EAGLES AND KITES ACCIPITRIDAE
White-collared Kite Leptodon forbesi Some members of the group were very fortunate to observe
this Brazilian endemic, while driving to lunch one day, in remnant rainforest close to Rio 
Formosa, in Pernambuco. This species is classified as `Critically Endangered` by Birdlife
International, the population is estimated to be between 50 - 250 individuals and declining.
The main threat to this species is destruction of habitat. The bird has a very small range and
there has been massive deforestation in coastal Alagoas and Pernambuco, where this species
occurs. Most of the suitable habitat has already been cleared, or is under threat of clearance.
The two key sites in Alagoas are both under severe threat, the forest at Murici covered 70
square kilometres in the 1970s, but less than 30 square kilometres in 1999. Indiscriminate
small-scale logging was still occurring at the site in 1992 and the area is further threatened
by fires spreading from adjacent sugarcane plantations.
Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis A few birds were present at a small wetland close to Quixada,
in Ceara and then we saw large numbers while having lunch at a restaurant overlooking the
Sao Francisco at Porto Real do Colegio, in Alagoas.
Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea We observed a single bird flying over farmland, close to the 
town of Arataca, in Bahia.
Gray Hawk Buteo nitidus We enjoyed good scope views of a perched bird, while birding in the forest of the Serra de Baturite, in Ceara.
White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus We enjoyed a few very good sightings of birds in flight, 
in the more arid areas of the tour.
Zone-tailed Hawk Buteo albonotatus We watched a single bird, of this uncommon species, doing 
its Turkey Vulture imitation, close to the town of Itacare, in Bahia.
Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris Numerous and widespread, in small numbers, throughout the 
tour.
Savanna Hawk Buteogallus meridionalis We enjoyed watching a few of this species, close to the 
town of Itapiuna, in Ceara.
Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus We enjoyed great looks at an adult bird soaring overhead, not far from the town of Ipire, in Bahia.                               

FALCONS AND CARACARAS FALCONIDAE
American Kestrel Falco sparverius Small numbers were observed throughout the tour.
Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis We enjoyed a few encounters with this very handsome and 
dashing falcon.
Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans We enjoyed a few very good observations of this 
unique bird of prey.
Southern Caracara Caracara plancus Regularly observed patrolling the roadsides, on almost a 
daily basis.
Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima A widespread open country falcon, which we saw 
regularly, in small numbers.
Barred Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis We were very fortunate that this very uncommon 
species, responded well to tape playback in a forested area along the road between Conudos
and Jeremoabo, in Bahia. Allowing us a number of great looks, at this very secretive
species.

GUANS, CHACHALACAS AND CURRASSOWS CRACIDAE
White-browed Guan Penelope jacucaca This species is a rare Brazilian endemic; we were 
fortunate to enjoy a quick sighting of a single bird, while birding in rainforest at Serra de
Baturite, in Ceara. This species is classified at `Vulnerable` by Birdlife International. It is
estimated that the population is between 2,500 - 10,000 individuals. The main threats to this
species are habitat loss and hunting. Northeastern Brazil is the poorest region in the country
and has a strong hunting culture. This large and attractive species is considered either
locally extinct or very rare over much of its range and is under intensive pressure from
hunting even in 'protected' areas. Degradation of dry forests and arboreal caatinga,
apparently its favoured habitats, has also been intensive.

LIMPKIN ARAMIDAE
Limpkin Aramus guarauna We observed a pair sitting under shade on the edge of a small lake,  
close to Quixada, in Ceara, this was followed by the sighting of a single bird at a small
wetland close to the Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas.  

RAILS, GALLINULES AND COOTS RALLIDAE
Blackish Rail Pardirallus nigricans A single bird responded to tape playback by flying over the 
swamp and over the speaker, at a small wetland in the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia. An
incredible response to tape playback.
Rufous-sided Crake Laterallus melanophaius At the same wetland in the Michelin Reserve, a
pair of this species responded well to tape playback, by walking right up to the speaker!
Common Gallinule Gallinula galeata Small numbers observed at a number of the wetlands we 
visited.
Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica We observed this attractive species at a small number of 
wetlands we visited.
SERIEMAS CARIAMIDAE
Red-legged Seriema Cariama cristata We enjoyed a few very good sightings throughout the tour.

JACANAS JACANIDAE
Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana We enjoyed many sightings, this species was present in good
numbers, at most of the wetlands we visited.

AVOCETS AND STILTS RECURVIROSTRIDAE
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus A few birds were present at a small wetland close to  
Itapiuna, in Ceara and we also saw a few more on the mudflats at Estancia, in Sergipe.

PLOVERS AND LAPWINGS CHARADRIIDAE
Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis Widespread and common throughout the tour.

SANDPIPERS AND ALLIES SCOLOPACIDAE
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus A few of these North American migrants were present on the 
mudflats at Estancia, in Sergipe.
Willet Tringa semipalmata A couple of these North American migrants were also present on the 
mudflats at Estancia, in Sergipe.
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria A single individual of this North American migrant was 
present on a small wetland close to Itapiuna, in Ceara.

PIGEONS AND DOVES COLUMBIDAE
Feral Pigeon Columba livia This introduced species was often encountered in the towns and 
villages of Brazil, where it has become very much a domesticated species.
Pale-vented Pigeon Patagioenas cayennensis We had several observations of this species, all of
birds in flight, throughout the tour.
Plumbeous Pigeon Patagioenas plumbea A single bird flew into a tree which we were stood next 
to, at Serra Bonita, in Bahia.
Picazuro Pigeon Patagioenas picazuro We enjoyed many sightings throughout the tour of both 
birds in flight and perched.
Scaled Dove Columbina squammata We frequently encountered small numbers in dry scrub,
throughout the tour.
Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata A common bird of arid areas, we observed some very large flocks 
on several occasions.
Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti Small numbers of this widespread species were 
observed on most days of the tour.
Picui Ground-Dove Columbina picui Commonly encountered in the drier areas of the tour.

PARROTS PSITTACIDAE
Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari We saw a dozen or more of these stunningly beautiful birds at 
a feeding station close to Canudos, in Bahia and then saw a couple more the following day, a
little closer to Jeremoabo. This species is endemic to a small area of northeastern Brazil and
is classified as `Endangered` by Birdlife International, the population is estimated to be
between 250 -1,000 individuals and declining. The main threats to this species are the
caged- bird trade, destruction of habitat, in particular the destruction of Licur Palms, the
birds main food source. The palms have been vastly reduced by livestock-grazing. This
species is also occasionally persecuted for foraging on maize crops when palm nuts are 
scarce. Hunting for food and wildlife products is also another threat. Edward Lear (1812-
1888) was a poet, traveller and artist. He is famous for his nonsense verse, limericks, stories
and songs, such as The Owl and the Pussycat, but he was also one of the most talented 
illustrators of birds of the 19th century. He was involved from the age of 15 in preparing
posters, leaflets and advertisements and was a largely self taught artist. At 18 he began 
working on the Illustrations of the family of Psittacidae or Parrots, which was finished in 
1832. From 1832 - 1837 Lear worked for Lord Stanley, the 13th Earl of Derby, who was
President of the Zoological Society of London. He worked as an illustrator for many of the 
book publishers of the time, particularly John Gould, with whom he contributed to The Birds
of Europe between 1832 - 1837, the Monograph of the Ramphistidae, or Family of Toucans
in 1834 and 1835 and finally the Monograph of the Trogonidae, or Family of Trogons in
1838. He is believed to be the first illustrator who preferred to draw from live specimens
when possible, rather than using skins. After 1837 Lear spent most of the rest of his life in
southern Europe where he died, aged 75 in Italy.
Blue-winged Macaw Primolius maracana We enjoyed wonderful scope views of two perched 
birds which were mutually preening in the top of a tall tree, not far from Canudos, in Bahia.
We saw a second pair at Boa Nova also in Bahia. This species is classified as
`Near-threatened` by Birdlife International, the population is estimated to be between
1,500 - 7,000 individuals and declining. The main threats to this species are habitat loss and capture for the cage-bird trade, with 183 individuals arriving in the USA from Paraguay between 1977 and 1979. Its decline in Argentina has been largely caused by persecution as a crop pest.
Red-shouldered Macaw Diopsittaca nobilis We enjoyed many good sightings of this species, in 
the more arid areas of the tour.
Blue-crowned Parakeet Aratinga acuticaudata We saw a pair in flight, not far from Canudos, in
Bahia.
Blue-throated Parakeet Pyrrhura cruentata Endemic to Brazil, we enjoyed scope view of this
very uncommon species in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia. This species is classified as
`Vulnerable` by Birdlife International, the population is estimated to be between
2,500 - 10,000 individuals and unfortunately, decreasing. The main threat to this species, is
extensive and continuing forest clearance to make cacao plantations and pasture for cattle.
Maroon-bellied Parakeet Pyrrhura frontalis Seen well on a number of occasions, in the second 
half of the tour.
Gray-breasted Parakeet Pyrrhura griseipectus We enjoyed lengthy scope views of this Brazilian 
endemic, perched in the forests of Serra de Baturite, in Ceara. This species is classified as
`Critically Endangered` by Birdlife International, the population is estimated to be between
30 - 200 individuals and unfortunately, decreasing. The main threat to this species, is the destruction of habitat, the original forest in this birds range is now reduced to just 13%. Coffee plantations, especially where sun coffee is grown instead of shade coffee, is having a great impact on this species. At this point in time, a more serious threat is believed to come from illegal and continuing trapping of wild birds for the local and international cage-bird trade. Therefore, we were extremely fortunate to enjoy such great scope views of what must surely be, one of the rarest birds in the world.
Golden-capped Parakeet Aratinga auricapillus Seen well on a few occasions, both perched in the
scope and in flight. This Brazilian endemic is classified as 'Near Threatened' by Birdlife
International, the population is estimated to be between 2,500 - 10,000 individuals and
decreasing. The main threats to this species are the usual ones, the continuing loss of habitat
and illegal trapping of birds, for the cage-bird trade.
Jandaya Parakeet Aratinga jandaya We enjoyed scope views of a small flock of this Brazilian 
endemic perched in trees along the edge of the Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas.
Peach-fronted Parakeet Aratinga aurea A rather plain coloured species of parrot, which we saw 
well on a few occasions.
Cactus Parakeet Aratinga cactorum We enjoyed many good sightings of this Brazilian endemic, 
while birding in the caatinga.
Plain Parakeet Brotogeris tirica We enjoyed a few good sightings of this Brazilian endemic, 
which is not the most colourful parrot in the world.
Yellow-chevroned Parakeet Brotogeris chiriri We observed a few flocks of this attractive species 
throughout the tour.
Blue-winged Parrotlet Forpus xanthopterygius We enjoyed many sightings of this the 
commonest species of parrotlet, throughout the tour.
Golden-tailed Parrotlet Touit surdus A flock of approximately a dozen or so birds flew directly in
front of us along the edge of a remnant rainforest patch, close to Rio Formoso, in Pernambuco. This Brazilian endemic is classified as 'Vulnerable' by Birdlife International, the population is estimated to be between 2,500 - 10,000 individuals and decreasing. Extensive deforestation throughout its range is regarded as the principal cause of its rarity, and the north-east population is most threatened because sugarcane plantations have replaced virtually all lowland forest in Alagoas, leaving just 2% of original forest cover, in severely fragmented blocks, averaging 1.5 square kilometres, or less.
Scaly-headed Parrot Pionus maximiliani A small flock of this species flew over us, while we
were birding in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.
Red-browed Parrot Amazona rhodocorytha We observed a few pairs of this Brazilian endemic,
while birding in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia. This species is classified as 'Endangered ' by
Birdlife International, the population is estimated to be between 600 - 1,700 individuals and
decreasing. As usual, extensive deforestation throughout its range is the principal threat to
this species. Less than 10% of original forest cover remains in Bahia and Esprito Santo, and
only 2% in Alagoas, primarily because of conversion to plantations and pasture for cattle.
The collapse of the cocoa economy in southern Bahia has resulted in increased logging by
landowners and the colonisation of reserves by former plantation workers. We saw
examples of this while driving to the Serra Bonita Reserve. The second main threat to this
species is illegal trapping for the cage-bird trade. In the 1998-1999 breeding season, 174
nestlings were poached, mostly from reserves, for the national and international cage-bird
trade, while 664 individuals were recorded in captivity at the Centre for Reintroduction of
Wild Animals in 2005-2006 and others were found in private cages. Illegal trade is
apparently the overriding threat to the species in Esprito Santo.
Orange-winged Parrot Amazona amazonica A pair flew over our heads, while birding in a palm grove, close to Estancia, in Sergipe.

CUCKOOS CUCULIDAE
Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana Seen very well on several occasions throughout the tour.
Guira Cuckoo Guira guira We enjoyed regular sightings of flocks of this rather bizarre looking
cuckoo.
Striped Cuckoo Tapera naevia We only saw this bird on one occasion, however, we did see it 
exceptionally well through the scope, in farmland close to Palmares, in Alagoas.
Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani A common and widespread species throughout Brazil, which 
we saw on almost every day of the tour.

OWLS STRIGIDAE
Tropical Screech-Owl Megascops choliba An individual responded well to tape playback, 
allowing us good close looks, during our time in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in
Bahia.
Least Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium minutissimum An individual responded well to tape playback in 
broad daylight, at Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia. We were able to enjoy really close looks
at it.
Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum An individual responded well to tape playback 
in broad daylight, in the grounds of our hotel at Uniao dos Palmares, in Alagoas.
Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia We saw many of this species in broad daylight, in the more 
arid areas of the tour.               

POTOOS NYCTIBIIDAE
Common Potoo Nyctibius griseus An individual responded particularly well to tape playback, just 
after dark, in forest close to Estancia, in Sergipe.
White-winged Potoo Nyctibius leucopterus This uncommon species swooped down onto an insect
on a track in the rainforest, narrowly missing the front of our bus, in the Veracel Reserve, in 
Bahia. It all happened in a split second and unfortunately, not all of us saw the bird.                        

NIGHTJARS AND ALLIES CAPRIMULGIDAE
Short-tailed Nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus Seen well on several occasions, flying around at 
dusk.
Least Nighthawk Chordeiles pusillus We saw a few of this species, again at dusk, close to  
Canudos, in Bahia and again in cerrado country, on the southern edge of Chapada
Diamentina National Park, also in Bahia.
Common Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis We enjoyed a great many sightings of this very 
common, but very beautiful nightjar.
Pygmy Nightjar Caprimulgus hirundinaceus We observed this Brazilian endemic very well at its 
daytime roost at Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Scissor-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis torquata We observed a female of this species in the 
spotlight, sat on a dirt road, close to Canudos, in Bahia.

SWIFTS APODIDAE
White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris While filling our bus with diesel late one afternoon, 
on the edge of the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia, we observed a large flock
of this species flying overhead.
Sick's Swift Chaetura meridionalis Small flocks of this species were observed flying above the
forest at Serra de Baturite and again flying over forest on the Chapada do Araripe, both
sightings occurred in Ceara. Helmut Sick (1910-1991) was a German-born Brazilian
ornithologist who worked for the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro, for many years. He is
particularly famed for being the man who rediscovered, in 1978, one of the few surviving
populations of the critically endangered Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari. His particular
interest was macaws and he was also responsible for the re-ordering of some genera in the
taxonomic sequence. It has been said that he was one of the most dedicated and active
ornithologist ever to work in South America. He wrote Ornitolgia Brazilera uma
Introducao in 1984. This great work was translated into English, in 1993 as Birds in Brazil
- A Natural History.
Gray-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris We saw a few small flocks of this species during the 
later half of the tour.
Fork-tailed Palm-Swift Tachornis squamata We enjoyed many good sightings of this very 
elegant species. during the first few days of the tour, in the state of Ceara.

HUMMINGBIRDS TROCHILIDAE
Planalto Hermit Phaethornis pretrei We observed this species feeding in the rainforest in Arajara 
Park, in Ceara and again in Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Reddish Hermit Phaethornis ruber We enjoyed many sightings of this tiny species of 
hummingbird.
Minute Hermit Phaethornis idaliae This Brazilian endemic was seen by myself on one occasion, 
right outside our accommodation block in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsutus We enjoyed many excellent sightings of this species  
throughout the tour.
Hook-billed Hermit Glaucis dohrnii This species was observed by myself feeding on flowering
shrubs in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia. This Brazilian endemic is classified as
`Endangered` by Birdlife International, the population is estimated to be between 250 -
1,000 individuals and decreasing. The coastal Atlantic forest of Brazil have been gradually
fragmented and destroyed, and this is the principal cause of this birds decline. Although
there are recent records from two reserves, these are under pressure from settlers, suffer
from fire and road construction and generally provide inadequate protection. Perhaps most
importantly, they protect few watercourses and consequently little suitable habitat for this
species.
Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis We enjoyed regular sightings of this species 
throughout the tour, most sightings were of females.
Black Jacobin Florisuga fusca We saw this stunning species of hummingbird on many occasions
throughout the tour.
Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata This species proved quite common in the grounds of 
our hotel at Serra de Baturite, in Ceara and also in the hummingbird garden at Boa Nova, in
Bahia.
Violet-capped Woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis We enjoyed good sightings of this species in 
the rainforests, in the southern half of the tour.
Rufous-throated Sapphire Hylocharis sapphirina Another species of hummingbird that proved 
to be common in the rainforests, in the southern half of the tour.
White-chinned Sapphire Hylocharis cyanus This far less common species, was observed on one 
occasion, perched in the canopy of the rainforest in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.
Blue-chinned Sapphire Chlorestes notata We observed a female of this species perched on the tip 
of a small branch in the rainforest close to Itacare, in Bahia.
Ruby-topaz Hummingbird Chrysolampis mosquitus We enjoyed many sightings of this fairly 
common but very striking species of hummingbird.
Glittering-bellied Emerald Chlorostilbon aureoventris A common species of the caatinga, which
we saw well on many occasions.
Glittering-throated Emerald Amazilia fimbriata Another common species of hummingbird, 
which we saw well in various types of forest throughout the tour.
Sapphire-spangled Emerald Amazilia lactea Proved to be not uncommon in the remnant 
rainforest patches in southern Bahia.
Sombre Hummingbird Aphantochroa cirrochloris As the name would suggest, this rather plain
species of hummingbird, also proved to be fairly common in the remnant rainforest patches
in southern Bahia. We saw this Brazilian endemic particularly well at the hummingbird 
feeders in the Serra Bonito Reserve.
Swallow-tailed Hummingbird Eupetomena macroura We observed this very large and very 
common species of hummingbird, on many occasions throughout the tour.
Hooded Visorbearer Augastes lumachella One of the highlights of the tour, was observing a male 
of this species in the telescope, while it was perched on a flowering shrub, in the Chapada
Diamentina National Park, in Bahia. This Brazilian endemic is classified as `Near
Threatened` by Birdlife International. Its total population is not known, but it must be fairly
low, as this species has a very small range, only occurring in the state of Bahia. Much of the range of this species was colonised in the 19th century when diamonds and gold were found in the region and small operations still persist. The main threat at this current time is the
increasing conversion of forest into grazing land for cattle ranching.
Black-eared Fairy Heliothryx auritus Another stunningly attractive species of hummingbird; we enjoyed our first sighting in a remnant rainforest patch, close to Rio Formoso, in Pernambuco. We had a second sighting in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.  

TROGONS AND QUETZALS TROGONIDAE
Amazonian Trogon Trogon ramonianus We observed the white-tailed race of this beautiful 
species of trogon, on several occasions throughout the tour.
Blue-crowned Trogon Trogon curucui This less common species was observed well in the 
rainforest of Serra de Baturite, in Ceara. We enjoyed a second sighting in the rainforest of
Arajara Park at Barbalha, also in Ceara.
Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura We observed this uncommon species very well on a couple of  
occasions while birding in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.

KINGFISHERS ALCEDINIDAE
Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata Small numbers observed throughout the tour; this is the 
largest species of kingfisher in the Americas, and the world's second largest species.
Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona We observed this species in a palm grove, close to 
Estancia, in Sergipe. This was followed by a second sighting, along the roadside, close to
Itacare, in Bahia.
Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana A single bird was observed flying along a small stream 
in farmland close to Murici, in Alagoas. A second bird was observed in a remnant rainforest patch close to Rio Formoso, in Pernambuco.  

JACAMARS GALBULIDAE
Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda We regularly encountered this very beautiful bird, it is
the only species of jacamar which occurs in northeast Brazil.

PUFFBIRDS BUCCONIDAE
White-eared Puffbird Nystalus chacuru We enjoyed super looks at one of these birds, during our 
time in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Caatinga Puffbird Nystalus maculatus A recent split from Spot-backed Puffbird, we saw this 
Brazilian endemic well on a few occasions, in the caatinga.
Crescent-chested Puffbird Malacoptila striata We greatly admired this beautiful species on a few 
occasions, in the rainforests of Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Swallow-winged Puffbird Chelidoptera tenebrosa We observed this species on several occasions, 
but only in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.

TOUCANS RAMPHASTIDAE
Spot-billed Toucanet Selenidera maculirostris A beautiful species which we saw very well, on a couple of occasions in Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus We enjoyed very good looks at a single bird 
perched in the top of a dead tree, in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.    

WOODPECKIERS AND ALLIES PICIDAE
Golden-spangled Piculet Picumnus exilis We observed a bird very well in the Murici Forest
Reserve, in Alagoas and again in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Ochraceous Piculet Picumnus limae We were very fortunate to observe this uncommon Brazilian  
endemic in the rainforests of the Serra de Baturite, in Ceara.
Yellow-throated Woodpecker Piculus flavigula We observed the red-throated race of this species very well, on one occasion in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Golden-green Woodpecker Piculus chrysochloros Seen by Michael, in a mixed species feeding
flock, in rainforest at Brejinho Das Ametista, in Bahia.
Little Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus A common and widespread species, which we saw well 
on many occasions.
Green-barred Woodpecker Colaptes melanochloros We enjoyed good looks at this species, on 
several occasions throughout the tour.
Campo Flicker Colaptes campestris This species was observed well in farmland, on a few 
occasions throughout the tour.
Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens This large and very beautiful species of 
woodpecker was seen well in the rainforest of the Serra de Baturite, in Ceara and again in
forest at Brejinho Das Ametista, in Bahia.
Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus This very large species of woodpecker was first 
observed in the grounds of our hotel at Rio Formoso, in Pernambuco and we enjoyed a
second sighting in the Chapada Diamentina National Park in Bahia.
Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos We observed a female of this very
large and very beautiful species, through the scope for an extended period, in caatinga, close 
to Canudos, in Bahia.

OVENBIRDS AND WOODCREEPERS FURNARIIDAE
Thrush-like Woodcreeper Dendrocincla turdina Observed well in a mixed species feeding flock, 
in rainforest at Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus A common and widespread species, which we saw well on several occasions.
White-throated Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes albicollis Observed well on one occasion, in 
rainforest in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Straight-billed Woodcreeper Dendroplex picus We enjoyed several encounters in the more arid 
woodlands of the tour.
Lesser Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus fuscus We enjoyed several good looks at this small species 
of woodcreeper.
Narrow-billed Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes angustirostris A bird of more open forest, which we 
saw well on several occasions.
Wing-banded Hornero Furnarius figulus We enjoyed several excellent encounters with this 
Brazilian endemic.
Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus A bird of more open dry forest, which we saw very well 
on a few occasions.
Rufous Hornero Furnarius rufus A confiding species, which we saw well on a number of
occasions.
Rufous-capped Spinetail Synallaxis ruficapilla Observed well on one occasion at Boa Nova, in
Bahia.
Bahia Spinetail Synallaxis whitneyi We observed this Brazilian endemic very well, while birding 
at Boa Nova, in Bahia. This species is classified as `Vulnerable` by Birdlife International.
Its population is estimated to be between 600 - 1,700 individuals and decreasing. The main
threat to this species is the destruction of habitat. It only occurs in a very small area of
Bahia and almost all the forest has been chopped down and converted into pastureland and
cultivation. Only a few privately-owned tracts of forest remain, and these are under pressure
from clearance and fires spreading out of cultivated areas.
Sooty-fronted Spinetail Synallaxis frontalis This widespread species showed well, on several 
occasions.
Pale-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albescens A bird of open areas, we saw a bird particularly well 
in cerrado country, close to Conudos, in Bahia.
Spix's Spinetail Synallaxis spixi We observed a bird skulking around in dense undergrowth in the 
Diamentina Mountains, near Rio de Contas, in Bahia. Johann Baptist Von Spix (1781 -
1826) was a German naturalist who is best known for his work in Brazil, from 1817 until
1820. He studied theology for three years in Wurzburg, then medicine and the natural
sciences, qualifying as a physician in 1806. He had already gained his PhD at the age of 19!
In 1808 he was awarded a scholarship by the King of Bavaria and went to Paris to study
zoology. In 1810 the King appointed him assistant to the Bavarian Royal Academy of
Sciences with special responsibility for the natural history exhibits. In 1817 he travelled to
Brazil and returned in 1820 with specimens of 85 mammals, 350 birds, 130 amphibians, 116
fish and 2,700 insects as well as 6,500 botanical items. The collections formed the basis for
the Natural History Museum in Munich. The king awarded him a knighthood and a pension
for life. After his return from Brazil, Spix's catalogued and published his findings despite
extremely poor health, caused by his stay there. In 1824 he published Avium Brasiliensium
Species Novae, which included a description of the Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus
maximilani, which he dedicated to his royal sponsor King Maximilian I. Wagler described
the Spix's Macaw in 1832 after Spix's death, when he realised that it was not a subspecies 
of the Hyacinth Macaw but a distinct species.
Ochre-cheeked Spinetail Synallaxis scutata A particularly well marked species of spinetail, we 
saw it very well in a patch of forest in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Yellow-chinned Spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomeus We had several good looks at this marsh 
inhabiting species.
Pallid Spinetail Cranioleuca pallida A forest inhabiting species, which is endemic to Brazil. We 
saw it very well on one occasion at Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Gray-headed Spinetail Cranioleuca semicinerea This Brazilian endemic is another forest
inhabiting species, but unlike most species of spinetails, this one prefers to live in the
canopy. We were very fortunate that one of these uncommon birds popped up on the top of 
a bush, in the grounds of our hotel at Serra de Baturite, in Ceara.
Red-shouldered Spinetail Gyalophylax hellmayri This beautiful Brazilian endemic, not a term
that I normally use when referring to spinetails, was observed very well on one occasion in 
arid, scrubby woodland on the Chapada do Araripe, in Ceara. This species is classified as
`Near Threatened` by Birdlife International. Its total population is not known but is
probably quite low, as the species has a fairly small range, which is restricted to northeastern Brazil. The main threats to this species are the destruction of caatinga to make way for cattle grazing and agriculture and the burning of the caatinga, to produce charcoal.
Striated Softtail Thripophaga macroura We enjoyed good looks at one of these uncommon 
Brazilian endemics, in a mixed species feeding flock, in the rainforests of Boa Nova, in
Bahia. This species is classified as `Vulnerable` by Birdlife International. Its total
population is estimated to be between 600 - 1,700 individuals and declining. The main
threat to this species is habitat loss. Widespread and continuing habitat destruction has
severely fragmented this specie's range. Although it has been observed in degraded forest, it
may be dependent on the presence of dense vine-tangles, which are likely to occur only in
little-disturbed and mature secondary forests.
Common Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons Seen well in the caatinga on many occasions, their huge and rather splendid nests, were a real feature of the more arid areas of northeast Brazil.
Pink-legged Graveteiro Acrobatornis fonsecai This recently described Brazilian endemic, has a
very small range and we were very fortunate that we eventually got very close looks at this 
avian gem, in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia. This species is classified as `Vulnerable`
by Birdlife International. Its population is estimated to be between 2,500 - 10,000
individuals and declining. Virtually all forest below 400 metres has been converted to cocoa
plantations or completely cleared. The system of shaded cocoa plantations has secured the
survival of a continuous canopy cover in places, but there is no forest regeneration owing to
weeding of the understorey. During the 1990's, falls in the price of cocoa and the
introduction of a fungal disease resulted in a downturn in cocoa production. Landowners
have started to sell timber from the shading forests and to shift production from cocoa to 
other crop-types or livestock-grazing.
Caatinga Cacholote Pseudoseisura cristata We enjoyed regular encounters with this spectacular 
Brazilian endemic, in the more arid areas of the tour.
White-collared Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops fuscus We enjoyed really good looks at this 
Brazilian endemic in a mixed species feeding flock, in the rainforests of Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Philydor rufum We were fortunate to see one of these birds extremely well, in a mixed species feeding flock, in the rainforests of Boa Nova, in Bahia.
White-eyed Foliage-gleaner Automolus leucophthalmus A lovely bird, which we saw well in
mixed species feeding flocks, on two separate occasions. The first sighting took place in the 
rainforests of Boa Nova, in Bahia and the second sighting took place in the rainforests of
Serra Bonita, also in Bahia.
Pale-browed Treehunter Cichlocolaptes leucophrus An uncommon Brazilian endemic of the
Atlantic coastal rainforest. We observed it very well on two separate occasions, in mixed 
species feeding flocks, in the rainforests of Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Undescribed species of Treehunter Cichlocolaptes ??? A new species of treehunter was recently 
found in the Serra Bonita Reserve, it has not yet been officially described in a scientific
journal, so does not have a common or scientific name, at this moment in time. It will be a
Brazilian endemic. I saw the bird very well in a mixed species feeding flock in the Serra
Bonita Reserve, in Bahia. I tried to get others on to the bird, but alas, in vain.
Great Xenops Megaxenops parnaguae This Brazilian endemic is a gem amongst birds, this
enormous species of xenops was observed very well on a few occasions, during our time 
birding in the dry caatinga.
Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans We enjoyed numerous sightings of this species throughout the 
tour.
Rufous-breasted Leaftosser Sclerurus scansor Ian pointed out one of these birds feeding on a 
forested track in the Serra de Baturite, in Ceara. This enabled us to have a good look, at this
uncommon and very shy species.

TYPICAL ANTBIRDS THAMNOPHILIDAE
Spot-backed Antshrike Hypoedaleus guttatus We enjoyed super looks at a male of this very 
beautiful species, in a vine tangle in the rainforests at Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Great Antshrike Taraba major Our first sighting of this lovely bird, was of a male in the 
rainforests of Serra de Baturite, in Ceara. Our second sighting, was of a pair of birds, in the
rainforests of Boa Nova, also in Bahia.
Silvery-cheeked Antshrike Sakesphorus cristatus This attractive species is endemic to the 
caatinga of northeast Brazil. We saw both male and females very well, on a few occasions.
Caatinga Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus capistratus Yet another species that is endemic to the
caatinga of northeast Brazil. We observed a pair very well on one occasion while birding in 
caatinga on the Chapada do Araripe, in Ceara.
Rufous-winged Antshrike Thamnophilus torquatus This attractive species was observed well in
the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia and again in the Serra Bonita Reserve, also
in Bahia.
Chestnut-backed Antshrike Thamnophilus palliatus We enjoyed super looks at a pair of these 
uncommon birds, in the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia.
Planalto Slaty-Antshrike Thamnophilus pelzelni We observed this Brazilian endemic very well 
on a few occasions, while birding in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike Thamnophilus ambiguus We saw this Brazilian endemic very well on 
a few occasions, in the rainforests we visited in the second half of the tour.
Spot-breasted Antvireo Dysithamnus stictothorax We were fortunate to see this uncommon
species very well on two separate occasions, both sightings occurred in mixed species 
feeding flocks, in rainforest. The first occurred at Boa Nova, in Bahia and the second, in the
Serra Bonita Reserve, also in Bahia. This species is classified as `Near Threatened` by
Birdlife International. Its total population is not known, but it is unfortunately decreasing.
The main threat to this species is loss of habitat, due to agricultural conversion, urbanisation, 
industrialisation and road-building.
Star-throated Antwren Myrmotherula gularis A very attractive species of antwren, we observed 
this Brazilian endemic very well in the rainforests of the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Silvery-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula luctuosa A recent split from White-flanked Antwren, this
new species only occurs in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. We enjoyed good sightings 
in the Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas and in a small patch of rainforest close to Estancia
in Sergipe.
Salvadori's Antwren Myrmotherula minor We were very fortunate to enjoy good looks at this 
uncommon Brazilian endemic, in the rainforest of the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia. This
species is classified as `Vulnerable` by Birdlife International. Its population is estimated to
be between 2,500 - 10,000 individuals and decreasing. The main threat to this species, is
the usual one, destruction of habitat. Virtually all lowland Atlantic forest outside protected
areas has been deforested within this birds range. Even some of the protected areas in which
it occurs are not secure. There is almost no suitable habitat remaining in Esprito Santo
below 700 metres, and the lowlands and foothills of south Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo
have become easily accessible to humans since the 1970s, with most of the forest below the 
base of the slopes cleared, or heavily degraded.
Band-tailed Antwren Myrmotherula urosticta We saw the male bird of this Brazilian endemic, 
extremely well, while birding in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia. This species is classified as
`Vulnerable` by Birdlife International. The estimated population of this species is between
1,500 - 7,000 individuals and decreasing. The main threat to this species is destruction of
habitat. Virtually all lowland Atlantic forest outside protected areas has been cleared within
its historical range, and even some of the protected areas in which it occurs are not secure.
The current key threats are urbanisation, agricultural expansion and associated road- building.
Alagoas Antwren Myrmotherula snowi Once again, we were very fortunate to observe a pair of 
this Brazilian endemic, in a remnant rainforest patch, close to Rio Formoso, in Pernambuco.
This species is classified as `Endangered ` by Birdlife International. The estimated
population of this species is between 30 - 200 individuals and decreasing. This species has
an incredibly small range, only occurring in the small states of Alagoas and Pernambuco. 
Almost all forest within its range has now been cleared as a result of logging and conversion
to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. As recently as January 1999, new logging roads
were evident and the tiny forest fragments where this species is still hanging on are severely
threatened by fires spreading from adjacent eucalypt plantations and burning for charcoal
production. Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its 
range, this species is also potentially susceptible to climate change.
Caatinga Antwren Herpsilochmus sellowi This Brazilian endemic showed well in the Chapada
Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Bahia Antwren Herpsilochmus pileatus As the name would suggest, this species is endemic to the
state of Bahia, in northeast Brazil. We saw it well on a few different occasions. This species 
is classified as `Vulnerable ` by Birdlife International. The estimated population of this
species is between 1,000 - 2,500 individuals and decreasing. Coastal forests in southern
Bahia have suffered a tremendous reduction in size during the last few decades. Logging
companies, pastures, and social pressure from native peoples and movements of landless people are the main factors that have contributed to the deforestation process. The
species has a very limited range, and although common, remaining vegetation is still being
destroyed. Planned large-scale tourist resort development along the coast of southern Bahia
may also have a large negative impact, even designated protected areas where this species
could be safe, are under threat themselves.
Black-capped Antwren Herpsilochmus atricapillus A common and widespread species of 
antwren, which we saw well in the Serra de Baturite and the Chapada do Araripe, both in Ceara.
Pectoral Antwren Herpsilochmus pectoralis We saw this Brazilian endemic very well in caatinga 
close to Conudos, in Bahia. This species is classified as `Vulnerable ` by Birdlife 
International. The estimated population of this species is between 2,500 - 10,000
individuals and decreasing. The main threat to this species is of course, habitat loss.
Intensive grazing and extensive burning in order to produce charcoal are widespread 
practises throughout this birds range.
Rufous-winged Antwren Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus We enjoyed a few good looks at this 
attractive species of antwren.
Narrow-billed Antwren Formicivora iheringi This Brazilian endemic has a relatively small range 
and we were fortunate to observe a pair very well in the rainforests of Boa Nova, in Bahia.
This species is classified as `Near Threatened` by Birdlife International and is decreasing. 
Its total population is not known, but it is probably fairly low as this species has a relatively
small range, only occurring in the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais. As usual, the main
threat to this species is habitat loss. Its habitat is being rapidly cleared for cattle pasture in
central-south Bahia, and much of the forest in north-east Minas Gerais and adjacent southern
Bahia, has been cleared for coffee plantations. At Aracuai, tourmaline miners have disturbed
all caatinga vegetation. Natural habitats are reduced to hilltops around Boa Nova, and
remaining forest patches are highly disturbed by livestock and subject to local exploitation
of trees for firewood and fence-posts.
Southern White-fringed Antwren Formicivora grisea A fairly common species, which we only 
saw on one occasion, in the rainforests of the Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas.
Black-bellied Antwren Formicivora melanogaster A handsome species, which we saw very well 
on several occasions.
Rusty-backed Antwren Formicivora rufa Another attractive species, we saw it very well on a 
couple of occasions in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Sincora Antwren Formicivora grantsaui After scrambling around on a rocky escarpment for a 
short period of time, we found this recently described Brazilian endemic in the Chapada
Diamentina National Park, in Bahia. This species is classified as `Near Threatened` by
Birdlife International and its population is thought to be stable. The Sincora Antwren has an
incredibly small range, in which it is known from only four locations. There are no major
threats that are understood to be driving a population decline or significantly impacting the
extent and quality of habitat, although improved knowledge regarding the impact of fires
may warrant investigation.
Streak-capped Antwren Terenura maculata This uncommon but very attractive species of 
antwren, showed well in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Stripe-backed Antbird Myrmorchilus strigilatus A fine looking bird, which we saw well on a 
number of occasions throughout the tour.
Ferruginous Antbird Drymophila ferruginea This attractive species is endemic to Brazil, we saw 
it very well on a number of occasions.
Scaled Antbird Drymophila squamata This beautifully marked species is endemic to Brazil, we  
saw it creeping around on the forest floor at Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Rio de Janeiro Antbird Cercomacra brasiliana This Brazilian endemic showed well in the 
rainforests of Boa Nova, in Bahia. Tspecies is classified as `Near Threatened` by
Birdlife International and its total population is unknown, but unfortunately is declining.
The main threat to this species is the usual one, deforestation. However, the apparent
tolerance of secondary habitat, may reduce the impact of habitat degradation and
fragmentation.
White-backed Fire-eye Pyriglena leuconota This secretive species of the forest undergrowth, 
gave up rather easily and showed well in the Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas.
White-shouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera Another secretive species of the forest 
undergrowth, which we saw well on a number of occasions.
Slender Antbird Rhopornis ardesiacus We observed this Brazilian endemic, which is dependant
on dry forest near patches of terrestrial bromeliads, rather well in a mixed species feeding 
flock in the rainforests of Boa Nova, in Bahia. This species is classified as `Endangered ` by 
Birdlife International. The population of this species is estimated to be between 600 -
1,700 individuals and decreasing. Dry forest in east Bahia has been reduced to scattered
fragments by rapid and continuing clearance for cattle pasture as well as clearance for
firewood by local communities. Cattle and goats trample seedlings and prevent forest
regrowth, and in some areas bromeliads are harvested for sale. The forest fragments totalled
about 965 square kilometres in the early 1970's. Now even less remains and most of it is
apparently unsuitable for the species since many forest patches are highly disturbed by 
livestock. Furthermore, it has not been found in several areas of relatively pristine habitat.                                            

ANTTHRUSHES AND ANTPITTAS FORMICARIDAE
White-browed Antpitta Hylopezus ochroleucus This fine looking, but unfortunately, very
skulking species, was observed on the Chapada do Araripe, in Ceara and in forest at 
Brejinho Das Ametista, in Bahia. This Brazilian endemic is classified as `Near Threatened` 
by Birdlife International. The total population of this species is unknown but is undoubtedly  
decreasing. Deforestation for agricultural expansion and logging, as well as understorey
degradation by intensive grazing has adversely affected this species. The extent of these
threats has accelerated since the 1970's, when the Brazilian oil company, Petrobras, built
roads in the centre of this birds range, thus opening up new areas to settlers.

TAPACULOS RHINOCRYPTIDAE
Bahia Tapaculo Eleoscytalopus psychopompus This species was thought to be extinct, until
recently rediscovered in the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia. We spent almost an entire morning in the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia, trying to get everyone to see this very rare Brazilian 
endemic. Unfortunately, it was only seen by a couple of us. This species is classified as 
`Critically Endangered` by Birdlife International. The population of this species is estimated
to be between 60 - 250 individuals and decreasing, making it one of the rarest birds in the
world. The entire range of this species is only 30 square kilometres, along the coast of  
Bahia. The destruction of coastal Atlantic forest has been extensive in Bahia, south of
Salvador, and only small fragments remain, totalling perhaps 10% of their original extent in
the area. The species is presumed to be at great risk from the continuing loss of suitable
habitat.

COTINGAS COTINGIDAE
Sharpbill Oxyruncus cristatus We were very fortunate to find a Sharpbill in a mixed species 
feeding flock in the rainforests of Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans A shy and retiring species, with a very loud call. We saw it 
well on two occasions, in the Veracel Reserve and in the Michelin Reserve, both in Bahia.
White-winged Cotinga Xipholena atropurpurea We had three frustratingly poor flight views of 
this stunningly beautiful Brazilian endemic, in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia. This species is 
classified as `Endangered` by Birdlife International. The population of this species is
estimated to be between 3,400 - 13,000 individuals and decreasing. This species is
threatened by extensive and continuing deforestation, with nearly 60% of suitable habitat
disappearing in the period 1980-1997. Many of the protected areas in which it occurs are
still under threat and inadequately protected. Thirteen out of 29 fruiting trees included in its
diet are exploited for timber. However, the species is rarely found in bird markets, and is 
only opportunistically hunted.

MANAKINS PIPRIDAE
Pin-tailed Manakin Ilicura militaris The male of this Brazilian endemic is very beautiful, 
unfortunately, we only observed females, on a couple of occasions in the Serra Bonita
Reserve, in Bahia.
Eastern Striped Manakin Machaeropterus regulus We were very fortunate to observe a male of 
this uncommon Brazilian endemic, at very close quarters, in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.
White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus We enjoyed many sightings of this beautiful species 
throughout the tour.
Araripe Manakin Antilophia bokermanni We enjoyed very close looks at this stunningly 
attractive Brazilian endemic in Arajara Park, at Barbalha, in Ceara. We even watched a pair
nest building. Little wonder then that this species was voted `Bird of the Tour`, by tour
participants. This species is classified as `Critically Endangered` by Birdlife International. 
The population of this species is estimated to be between 150 - 700 individuals and
unfortunately decreasing. This species only occurs on the Chapada do Araripe. The 
lowlands adjacent to the Chapada have been largely cleared for agriculture, especially
banana, maize, beans and tomatoes, cattle raising and the construction of homes. There are
several recreational facilities along the slopes of the Chapada do Araripe. These include
large open parks and swimming pools, which have involved deforestation in their
development, particularly in areas where there is spring water. A large recreational water-
park was built at the type-locality in 2000, but a small patch of habitat is being conserved
there, and the species persists despite the disturbance. Fires in 2004-2005 largely destroyed
an area of forest known to contain seven active nests of this species. Another fire in
September 2010 affected the same area, as well as other areas where the species is known to
occur. The springs that supply the streams which support the moist forest habitat of the
Araripe Manakin have shown an average reduction of 75% in their outflow over the past
100 years, possibly due to deforestation on the slopes and plateau of the Chapada do
Araripe, posing a long-term threat to the manakin's remaining habitat. Diversion,
channelling and piping of the springs and streams are also reducing the area of available 
gallery forest habitat.
Blue-backed Manakin Chiroxiphia pareola We were very fortunate to observe a pair of these 
birds at close quarters, in the Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas.
Blue Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata We observed this beautiful species on a few occasions in the  
Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
White-crowned Manakin Pipra pipra Another beautiful species, which we saw very well on a 
number of occasions.
Red-headed Manakin Pipra rubrocapilla Another stunning species and once again, we saw it 
well on a number of occasions.

TYRANT FLYCATCHERS TYRANNIDAE
Planalto Tyrannulet Phyllomyias fasciatus A common and widespread species, which we saw 
well on many occasions.
Gray Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps We observed this uncommon species, very well in the  
Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Greenish Elaenia Myiopagis viridicata A single bird was seen well at Chapada Diamentina
National Park, in Bahia.
Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster Easily the most common of all the elaenias, we saw it
well on many occasions.
Olivaceous Elaenia Elaenia mesoleuca Observed well on one occasion, in the grounds of our 
hotel at Crato, in Ceara.
Plain-crested Elaenia Elaenia cristata We observed this species very well on a couple of 
occasions in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum A common and widespread species, 
which we saw well on several occasions.
White-crested Tyrannulet Serpophaga subcristata We enjoyed really close looks at this species, 
on one occasion, at Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Mouse-colored Tyrannulet Phaeomyias murina A common and widespread species which we 
saw well in the Chapada Diamentina National Park and again in the Michelin Reserve, both
in Bahia.
Yellow Tyrannulet Capsiempis flaveola A forest inhabiting species which we saw well on a few 
occasions throughout the tour.
Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant Euscarthmus meloryphus This tiny species showed well in 
caatinga, close to Conudos and again at Boa Nova, both in Bahia.
Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant Euscarthmus rufomarginatus We observed this uncommon species 
very well on two separate occasions in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
This species is classified as `Near Threatened` by Birdlife International. The total 
population of this species is unknown and is unfortunately decreasing. Habitat loss in the
cerrado is without doubt the major factor explaining its current rarity. By 1993, two-thirds
of this birds range had been heavily or moderately altered, with most of the destruction
having occurred since 1950. There has been extensive conversion to agriculture for 
livestock farming, eucalyptus plantations, soy-beans and exportable crops, encouraged by
government land reform in Brazil.
Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant Stigmatura napensis We observed a pair very well in dry cerrado, close to Canudos, in Bahia.
Greater Wagtail-Tyrant Stigmatura budytoides We also observed a pair of this species very well 
in caatinga, on the Chapada do Araripe, in Ceara.
Slender-footed Tyrannulet Zimmerius gracilipes We observed a single bird very well, in the 
rainforests of Serra de Baturite, in Ceara.
Bahia Tyrannulet Phylloscartes beckeri A rare Brazilian endemic of montane forest, which we 
saw very well in the rainforests at Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia. This species is classified 
as `Endangered` by Birdlife International. The population of this species is estimated to be
between 2,500 - 10,000 individuals and unfortunately, decreasing. In this species range the 
rainforest has virtually disappeared, owing to the expansion of pastureland and cultivation.
Only a few privately-owned tracts of forest remain, such as Serra Bonita Reserve and these
are under pressure from clearance and fires spreading out of cultivated areas. By 1999, the
largest remaining patch of approximately 3 square kilometres had been largely destroyed 
and the long-term survival of this species in the area is highly questionable.
Minas Gerais Tyrannulet Phylloscartes roquettei We enjoyed really close looks at a pair of this 
Brazilian endemic in dry forest, which was part of a buffer zone, on the edge of the Chapada
Diamentina National Park, in Bahia. This species has not previously been found in the state
of Bahia, this sighting represents a significant northward extension of this birds range. This 
species is classified as `Endangered` by Birdlife International. The population of this
species is estimated to be between 1,500 - 7,000 individuals and unfortunately, decreasing.  
This birds habitat is probably the most threatened in central Brazil owing to its valuable 
aroeira, Astronium urundeuva wood and relatively fertile soils. Charcoal-burners were fully
active at the type-locality in 1986, where there was also extensive forest cutting for pasture
and agricultural development. The Sao Francisco basin is also threatened by limestone
quarrying and a large-scale irrigation project that has already resulted in the loss of large
areas of forest. Cattle ranching has resulted in forest clearance across large parts of the state
of Minas Gerais within this birds range. These same threats are impacting upon recently
discovered locations and are exacerbated when remaining forest is highly fragmented.
Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus A common and widespread species, which we saw very well on a number of occasions.
Gray-hooded Flycatcher Mionectes rufiventris We observed a single bird at very close quarters in 
the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.
Southern Scrub-Flycatcher Sublegatus modestus A common and widespread species which we 
saw well in Arajara Park, at Barbalha, in Ceara and again in cerrado close to Canudos, in
Bahia.
White-bellied Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus griseipectus We observed this uncommon species in the  
Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas and again in a remnant patch of rainforest close to Rio
Formoso, in Pernambuco.
Hangnest Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus nidipendulus This Brazilian endemic is probably fairly
common, as we saw far more of its distinctive nests, than we did birds. However, we did see 
it very well in the Chapada Diamentina National Park and at Boa Nova, both in Bahia.
Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer We saw a few of these unobtrusive 
birds during the course of the tour.
Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps We observed this unobtrusive species  
in the grounds of our hotel at Uniao dos Palmares, in Alagoas and again in a remnant
rainforest patch close to Rio Formoso, in Pernambuco.
Smoky-fronted Tody-Flycatcher Poecilotriccus fumifrons We observed one of these uncommon 
species very well in the rainforests of the Serra de Baturite, in Ceara.
Gray-headed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum poliocephalum We enjoyed several good looks at this attractive Brazilian endemic, in the latter half of the tour.
Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum Common and conspicuous throughout the tour.
Yellow-olive Flycatcher Tolmomyias sulphurescens A common and widespread species, we saw it well on one occasion in forest at Brejinho Das Ametista, in Bahia.
White-throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus A rather shy and retiring species, which we 
saw well on one occasion, in the rainforests of Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus A well marked species of flycatcher, which we 
saw well on several occasions.
Whiskered Flycatcher Myiobius barbatus An attractive species, which we saw well on one 
occasion, in the rainforests of Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Cliff Flycatcher Hirundinea ferruginea This large and attractive species of flycatcher was 
observed very well on one occasion, in farmland at Murici, in Alagoas.
Euler's Flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri A fairly common and widespread species, we saw it very
well on a couple of occasions in the rainforests of Serra Bonita, in Bahia. Carl Hieronymus
Euler 1834-1901, was the Swiss consul in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1897 until his death.
The ornithologist Jean Louis Cabanis first described the flycatcher from a specimen which
Euler had sent him. Euler's collection of 369 species of birds, most of which were collected
on his farm are housed in the Berlin Museum. Unfortunately, today only 40% of this
number can now be found in the valley which Euler farmed.
Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus A common and widespread species, we found a nesting pair in 
the rainforests of Serra Bonito, in Bahia.
Velvety Black-Tyrant Knipolegus nigerrimus We had super close looks at a female of this 
Brazilian endemic, in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Yellow-browed Tyrant Satrapa icterophrys An uncommon bird which we saw well on one 
occasion, at a small wetland at Boa Nova, Bahia.
Black-backed Water-Tyrant Fluvicola albiventer We saw one of these attractive birds at a small  
wetland, close to Senador Pompeu, in Ceara.
Masked Water-Tyrant Fluvicola nengeta Nicknamed the Masked Swimming-Pool Tyrant by 
Michael, we saw it mainly in the grounds of our hotels, throughout the tour.
White-headed Marsh-Tyrant Arundinicola leucocephala We observed this beautiful species on 
several occasions.
Gray Monjita Xolmis cinereus We observed this widespread species on one occasion, along the
roadside in the Diamentina Mountains, in Bahia.
White Monjita Xolmis irupero A stunning species, which we saw very well on several occasions.
Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus Another attractive and widespread species, which we 
enjoyed watching on several occasions throughout the tour.
Cattle Tyrant Machetornis rixosa A common and widespread species, which we saw on several 
occasions.
Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius Another common and widespread species, which we saw 
very well on many occasions.
Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis Yet another common and widespread species, which we saw 
on many, many occasions throughout the tour.
Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus Perhaps the second commonest bird of the whole tour, 
observed on almost every day of the tour.
Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus This species is also common and widespread and 
we saw it well on a number of occasions.
Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua This is another common and widespread species, 
which we saw well on several occasions.
Variegated Flycatcher Empidonomus varius Yet another common and widespread species, which 
we saw well on numerous occasions.
Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus Perhaps the commonest bird of the whole tour, 
observed on every single day of the tour.
Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana Another common and widespread species, we saw it 
well on several occasions.
Grayish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex We observed this uncommon but widespread species, in 
the Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas and again in the rainforests of Serra Bonita, in Bahia.
Sirystes Sirystes sibilator We observed this bird very well on one occasion, high in the canopy of 
the rainforest at Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Ash-throated Casiornis Casiornis fuscus We observed this uncommon Brazilian endemic on one 
occasion, in the Arajara Park, at Barbalha, in Ceara.
Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer This widespread species was seen well on one  
occasion, in farmland at Palmares, in Alagoas.
Swainson's Flycatcher Myiarchus swainsoni A widespread species which we saw in the Arajara
Park, at Barbalha, in Ceara and again in the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia.
(1789-1855) was a naturalist and bird illustrator. He was born in Liverpool, the son of a
collector of customs duty. He served for 8 years from 1807-1815 with the army
commissariat and amassed a very large collection of zoological specimens. At the end of the
Napoleonic war he retired on half-pay. From 1816-1818 he travelled and collected
extensively throughout Brazil. In 1840 he travelled to New Zealand and became the
countries first Attorney General. Unfortunately, most of his collections of specimens were
lost on the voyage to New Zealand, where he remained for the rest of his life.
Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox A common and widespread species, which we saw 
well on many occasions.
Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus Another common and widespread species which 
we saw well on a couple of occasions, in cerrado close to Canudos, in Bahia.
Gray-hooded Attila Attila rufus We observed this uncommon Brazilian endemic very well, in the 
rainforests at Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Bright-rumped Attila Attila spadiceus We enjoyed one sighting of this attractive species, in the 
rainforests at Serra Bonita, in Bahia.
Black-tailed Tityra Tityra cayana An attractive species, which saw well on a few occasions.
Green-backed Becard Pachyramphus viridis A fairly common bird of the forest sub-canopy, 
which we saw well on a few occasions.
Chestnut-crowned Becard Pachyramphus castaneus We enjoyed many good looks at this 
widespread species during our time at Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.

SWALLOWS HIRUN DINIDAE
White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer A bird of lowland wetlands, which we saw well on 
many occasions.
White-rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa We observed half a dozen or so birds flying over 
a small wetland in the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia.
Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea A common bird of open areas, we regularly recorded 
small flocks throughout the tour.
Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera Small numbers observed at a number of the wetland areas 
we visited.
Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca Regularly encountered throughout the second 
half of the tour.
Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Small flocks observed on almost 
every day of the tour.
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica A migrant from North America, we observed a small number 
hawking over farmland at Cachocira Linda, near Palmares, in Alagoas.

WAGTAILS and PIPITS MOTACILLIDAE
Yellowish Pipit Anthus lutescens Scattered sightings throughout the tour.

WRENS TROGLODYTIDAE
Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapilla Splendid birds which we saw in a small 
wetland close to Murici, in Alagoas and again at a small wetland in the Michelin Reserve, in 
Bahia.
Moustached Wren Pheugopedius genibarbis We enjoyed many good sightings throughout the 
tour.
Long-billed Wren Cantorchilus longirostris We enjoyed very good looks at this Brazilian 
endemic in cerrado, not far from Conudos, in Bahia.
Southern House Wren Troglodytes musculus Commonly encountered throughout the whole tour.                                         

MOCKINGBIRDS and THRASHERS MIMIDAE
Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus An open country species which somewhat surprisingly, we 
only saw in the grounds of our hotel at Salvador, in Bahia.
Chalk-browed Mockingbird Mimus saturninus Common and conspicuous, observed on almost  
every day of the tour.

THRUSHES and ALLIES TURDIDAE
Yellow-legged Thrush Turdus flavipes We only saw this beautiful species in the Serra Bonita
Reserve, in Bahia, where we saw it very well.
Rufous-bellied Thrush Turdus rufiventris We enjoyed many sightings throughout the tour, almost 
on a daily basis.
Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas Observed well at regular intervals throughout the tour.
Creamy-bellied Thrush Turdus amaurochalinus Small numbers observed throughout the tour.
White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis This beautifully marked thrush was observed well on a 
handful of occasions.

GNATCATCHERS POLIOPTILIDAE
Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus We enjoyed good looks at a pair of birds in the  
Murici Forest Reserve, in Alagoas and then we saw a single bird in the Veracel Reserve, in
Bahia.
Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea A common bird of open woodland, which we saw very 
well on several occasions.
Masked Gnatcatcher Polioptila dumicola We only observed this attractive species on one
occasion, we watched a pair flitting around a tall tree, at the entrance gate to the 
Michelin Reserve, in Bahia.

CROWS, JAYS and MAGPIES CORVIDAE
White-naped Jay Cyanocorax cyanopogon We enjoyed many good sightings of this beautiful
Brazilian endemic, which is the only jay that occurs in northeast Brazil.

OLD WORLD SPARROWS PASSERIDAE
House Sparrow Passer domesticus This introduced species was observed on almost every day of 
the tour.

WAXBILLS and ALLIES ESTRILDIDAE
Common Waxbill Estrilda astrild We saw several small flocks of this introduced species.

VIREOS and ALLIES VIREONIDAE
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus We enjoyed several encounters with this widespread species.
Gray-eyed Greenlet Hylophilus amaurocephalus We observed this inconspicuous Brazilian 
endemic in cerrado, close to Conudos and again in forest at Brejinho Das Ametista, both in
Bahia.
Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis We observed this attractive species very 
well, on several occasions.

SISKINS,CROSSBILLS and ALLIES FRINGILLIDAE
Purple-throated Euphonia Euphonia chlorotica The most common euphonia in this part of 
Brazil, we saw it well on many occasions.
Violaceous Euphonia Euphonia violacea Also observed regularly throughout the tour.
Yellow-faced Siskin Spinus yarrellii We observed a pair of this attractive Brazilian endemic, at 
close quarters in the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia. Which is further south than any previous
sightings. This species is classified as `Vulnerable` by Birdlife International. The 
population of this species is estimated to be between 6,000 - 15,000 individuals and 
unfortunately, decreasing. It suffers from high volume, illegal trade on both national and
international markets. In the 1980's, up to 700 birds were seen at the Fortaleza bird market,
and 60-100 appeared seasonally at the Caxias market in Rio de Janeiro. It may also be
threatened by pesticide applications.

NEW WORLD WARBLERS PARULIDAE
Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi A common resident, it is a very beautiful bird and we saw it 
very well on several occasions throughout the tour.
Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis We observed a beautiful male along the edge of  
the forest at Boa Nova, in Bahia.
Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus A widespread species which we encountered 
on a regular basis.
Flavescent Warbler Basileuterus flaveolus A very beautiful bird which we observed very well on 
a few occasions.

BANANAQUIT COEREBIDAE
Bananaquit Coereba flaveola Common and widespread throughout the whole tour.

TANAGERS AND ALLIES THRAUPIDAE
Chestnut-vented Conebill Conirostrum speciosum We saw a single male very well, in forest at 
Brejinho Das Ametista, in Bahia.
Cinnamon Tanager Schistochlamys ruficapillus Observed very well, on a few occasions.
White-banded Tanager Neothraupis fasciata We enjoyed super close looks at one of these 
beautiful birds in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Scarlet-throated Tanager Compsothraupis loricata This stunningly attractive Brazilian endemic,
is a very uncommon bird. Therefore, we were very pleased to enjoy good looks at a pair of 
birds on the Chapada do Araripe, in Ceara and in cerrado close to Canudos, in Bahia.
Orange-headed Tanager Thlypopsis sordida We enjoyed several good looks at this beautiful 
inhabitant of secondary growth forest.
Guira Tanager Hemithraupis guira This beautiful species was observed well in the grounds of 
our hotel at Uniao dos Palmares, in Alagoas and also in the Chapada Diamentina National
Park in Bahia.
Rufous-headed Tanager Hemithraupis ruficapilla We also enjoyed good looks at this attractive 
Brazilian endemic, in the rainforests at B oa Nova and Serra Bonita Reserve, both in Bahia.
Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis flavicollis Another attractive species, Robert saw a female
of this species in the Murici Forest Reserve and then we all saw a pair in rainforest close to
Itacare, in Bahia.
Hooded Tanager Nemosia pileata This beautiful species of tanager popped into view on several
occasions throughout the tour.
Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus Stunning males and modest females, were 
observed on several occasions throughout the tour.
White-lined Tanager Tachyphonus rufus Commonly encountered throughout the tour.
Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Habia rubica We observed this secretive species very well on a 
couple of occasions in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Lowland Hepatic Tanager Piranga flava A male was observed by myself in the grounds of the  
restaurant where we had lunch, in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Brazilian Tanager Ramphocelus bresilius One of the most beautiful birds of the tour, which we 
saw well on a few occasions.
Sayaca Tanager Thraupis sayaca The commonest tanager in Brazil, observed on almost every day 
of the tour.
Azure-shouldered Tanager Thraupis cyanoptera This species is an uncommon Brazilian
endemic, which we observed very well at the bird feeders, at the Serra Bonita Reserve, in
Bahia.
Golden-chevroned Tanager Thraupis ornata Another Brazilian endemic, but much commoner
than the above species. Once again, we only observed this species at the bird feeders, at the 
Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum The second most common tanager in Brazil, which we 
observed on most days of the tour.
Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana We observed the white-bellied race of this species, very 
well on several occasions, but only in the Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.
Seven-colored Tanager Tangara fastuosa We had a couple of quick looks at this stunningly 
attractive Brazilian endemic, in a remnant rainforest patch, close to Rio Formoso, in
Pernambuco. This species is classified as `Vulnerable` by Birdlife International. The 
population of this species is estimated to be between 2,500 - 10,000 individuals and 
unfortunately, decreasing. H eavy trapping for trade results from the high prices commanded
by this specie's exceptional plumage. There has been a massive clearance of original
Atlantic forest in north-east Brazil with just 2% remaining, largely as a result of logging and
conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. None of the remaining forest
fragments is larger than 4,000 hectares, with most of this still subject to selective logging
and poaching. For example, forest at Murici reduced from 70 square kilometres in the
1970's, to a fragmented 30 square kilometres in 1999. The site is severely threatened by
fires spreading from adjacent plantations and further logging, with new roads evident in
January 1999.
Green-headed Tanager Tangara seledon Another very attractive species of tanager and once 
again, we only observed it at the bird feeders in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Red-necked Tanager Tangara cyanocephala One of Brazil's most stunning birds, which we saw 
very well on numerous occasions.
Burnished-buff Tanager Tangara cayana A common and widespread species throughout 
northeast Brazil.
Opal-rumped Tanager Tangara velia Another beautiful species, we observed the silvery-breasted 
race on several occasions throughout the tour.
Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana Another stunning species, which we recorded on most days of the 
tour.
Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza Yet another very attractive species and once again, we 
only observed it at the bird feeders, in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus Another stunning species, which we saw very 
well, on a few occasions.

BUNTINGS, SPARROWS SEEDEATER AND ALLIES EMBERIZIDAE
Pileated Finch Coryphospingus pileatus The male of this species is simply stunning, particularly
when he spreads his erectile coronal crown stripe, flashing the blood red feathers. We 
enjoyed several good sightings throughout the tour.
Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina Not particularly common, with only a small number 
observed, at widely scattered sites.
Plumbeous Seedeater Sporophila plumbea Seen well on a couple of occasions, in the Chapada
Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Yellow-bellied Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis Small flocks regularly encountered throughout 
the tour.
Dubois's Seedeater Sporophila ardesiaca We were very fortunate to observe a pair of these 
Brazilian endemics along the side of the track at Boa Nova, in Bahia, this species is rare this
far north. Charles Frederic Dubois (1804 - 1867) was a Belgian naturalist, as was his son
Alphonse Joseph Charles Dubois (1839 - 1921), after whom the birds might have been
named instead. They published many works together including Les Oiseaux de l'Euope,
which appeared between 1868 and 1872. The book was completed by Alphonse and
published after C F Dubois's death.
Double-collared Seedeater Sporophila caerulescens We observed a small flock at the entrance to 
the Veracel Reserve, at Bahia and this was followed by a second flock, in the Michelin
Reserve, also in Bahia.
White-throated Seedeater Sporophila albogularis We enjoyed watching several flocks of this 
northeastern Brazil endemic.
Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis We enjoyed a stunning male of this 
uncommon species, in the Michelin Reserve, in Bahia.
Sooty Grassquit Tiaris fuliginosus We saw a male of this uncommon species, in the Serra Bonita
Reserve, in Bahia
Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola Small flocks observed, on a number of occasions.
Grassland Yellow-Finch Sicalis luteola We saw a large flock of the luteiventris race at a large 
wetland close to Iguatu, in Ceara.
Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch Sicalis citrina We enjoyed good looks at a couple of small flocks in 
cerrado, in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch Emberizoides herbicola We enjoyed several good observations of this 
long tailed species of finch.
Pale-throated Pampa-Finch Embernagra longicauda We enjoyed super scope views of this 
range-restricted Brazilian endemic, in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Red-cowled Cardinal Paroaria dominicana One of the more common northeast Brazilian 
endemics, which we saw on many occasions.
Pectoral Sparrow Arremon taciturnus We enjoyed great looks at this shy and unobtrusive species, 
on a few occasions, but only in the Serra de Baturite, in Ceara.
Sao Francisco Sparrow Arremon franciscanus We had super looks at this caatinga speciality and 
Brazilian endemic, in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia. This species is 
classified as `Near Threatened` by Birdlife International. The population of this species is
estimated to be between 10,000 - 20,000 individuals and unfortunately, decreasing. The
whole region in which caatinga habitat occur has suffered the impact of human settlement
over a long period of time and there has been extensive conversion to agriculture and cattle-
ranching, and associated fires. The area around the type-locality is subject to a large
irrigation scheme, which will possibly lead to habitat loss and further fragmentation.
Grassland Sparrow Ammodramus humeralis We observed a few of these unpretentious birds, in 
cerrado close to Conudos, in Bahia and in farmland close to Murrci, in Alagoas.
Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis Small numbers of this species were observed 
throughout the tour.

SALTATORS, CARDINALS and ALLIES CARDINALIDAE
Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus Frequently encountered throughout the whole tour.
Black-throated Saltator Saltator atricollis We enjoyed good scope views of this uncommon 
species, in the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Green-winged Saltator Saltator similis Seen well in the Diamentina Mountains and then again at
Brejinha Das Ametista, both in Bahia.
Black-throated Grosbeak Saltator fuliginosus Observed well in the scope, on one occasion, in 
the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
Yellow-green Grosbeak Caryothraustes canadensis A single bird showed very well in the Veracel
Reserve, in Bahia.
Ultramarine Grosbeak Cyanocompsa brissonii We enjoyed scope views of a solitary male in the 
caatinga, on the Chapada do Araripe, in Ceara and then a second sighting in the Chapada
Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.

TROUPIALS AND ALLIES ICTERIDAE
Chestnut-capped Blackbird Chrysomus ruficapillus We observed small numbers of this 
inhabitant of reedy marshes, throughout the tour.
White-browed Blackbird Sturnella superciliaris Small flocks in beautiful breeding plumage were
observed frequently throughout the tour.
Pale Baywing Agelaioides fringillarius We regularly encountered this northeast Brazilian 
endemic, in caatinga habitat.
Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis Common and widespread in open areas, we saw small
flocks at various locations throughout the tour. This species is a brood parasite, whose
numbers must have undoubtedly gone up with the increase in deforested country. It is 
named after Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina.
Epaulet Oriole Icterus cayanensis Small numbers observed throughout the tour.
Campo Troupial Icterus jamacaii Endemic to northeast Brazil, we regularly encountered this 
magnificently plumaged species.
Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela We observed small numbers of this very showy species.
Red-rumped Cacique Cacicus haemorrhous Several small flocks observed well, during the 
second half of the tour.
Solitary Black Cacique Cacicus solitarius Small numbers observed throughout the tour.
Chopi Blackbird Gnorimopsar chopi A bird of open habitat, we enjoyed several small flocks.















MAMMALS

Crab-eating Fox Cerdocyon thous We saw a couple of these foxes, in the Veracel Reserve, in
Bahia.
Southern American Coati Nasua nasua One animal crossed the track ahead of us, at dusk, in the
Veracel Reserve, in Bahia.
Proboscus Bat Rhynchonycteris naso We saw this species flying above the track we were walking
on at dusk in the Serra do Baturite and again in Arajara Park, at Barbalha, both in Ceara.
Mexican Free-tailed Bat Tadarida brasillensi Observed flying overhead on a bush track, at dusk,
in the Serra Bonita Reserve, in Bahia.
White-tufted Marmoset Callithrix jacchus Regularly encountered throughout the whole tour.
Wied's Black-tufted-ear Marmoset Callithrix kuhlii Endemic to a small area of southern Bahia.
They proved to be fairly common in the Serra Bonita Reserve. They are classified as `Near
Threaten` on The IUCN Red List.
Bearded Capuchin Sapajus libidinosus I had a quick look at a distant animal of this species, in
the Chapada Diamentina National Park, in Bahia.
Yellow-breasted Capuchin Sapajus xanthosternos Endemic to Bahia, this species is classified as
`Critically Endangered` on The IUCN Red List. We all saw a single individual extremely
well in the Serra Bonita Reserve, where we watched it break a twig from a branch which had
the nest of a Hangnest Tody-Tyrant on it and scamper off into the forest to eat the contents at
leisure. Although there are no accurate estimates of remaining populations of the Yellow-
breasted Capuchin, it is believe to be among the rarest of the Neotropical Primates. Its
forest were largely obliterated during colonisation of the region from the early to mid 1500's.
Historical records show that in 1757 the region of the Reconcavo da Bahia and the main part
of the states of Bahia and Sergipe, where the Yellow-breasted Capuchin once thrived,
produced more than 300,000 cattle a year, all bred in pastures that were once tall tropical
forests. By 1938 only 0.1% of Sergipe State was forested. There are no localities remaining
were the Yellow-breasted Capuchin is found in anything but very low densities. Moreover,
they are hunted for their meat and occasionally trapped for the pet trade. At this time the
number of Yellow-breasted Capuchin's has risen to 140 animals in 21 zoos, mainly in
Europe. Recent surveys of wild Yellow-breasted Capuchin's resulted in estimates of
approximately 3,000 individuals remaining, in wildly scattered localities but none of the
populations are considered viable in the long term.                                                                                                                                                                              

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