Peregrine Bird Tours
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Peregrine Bird Tours

Colombia Tour Report


PEREGRINE BIRD TOURS

COLOMBIA


7 - 28 August 2016


TOUR REPORT


Contrary to popular belief, Colombia is a peaceful, well run, Andean Country. It is a tremendous birding destination, and boasts the largest bird list of any country in the word; and includes a staggering number of endemic and near-endemic birds, which our tour amply demonstrated. We were very fortunate with the weather, losing very little birding time to bad weather and we enjoyed a trouble-free tour from beginning to end. On this extensive itinerary, we visited the Pacific Coast, the High Andes, and the Amazon and Orinoco Basins, it was a wonderful experience. We observed no fewer than 30 endemic, or near-endemic birds which included Baudo Guan, Rose-faced Parrot, Bronze-tailed Thornbill, Green-bearded Helmetcrest, Coppery-bellied Puffleg, Brown Inca, Blue-throated Starfrontlet, Empress Brilliant, Purple-throated Woodstar, Purple-chested Hummingbird, Toucan Barbet, Choco Toucan, Orinoco Piculet, Narino and Pale-bellied Tapaculos, Black-tipped Cotinga, Beautiful Jay, Apolinar's Wren, Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager, Black-and-gold, Purplish-mantled, Glistening-green, Scrub, Rufous-throated, Blue-whiskered and Scarlet-and-white Tanagers, Rufous-browed Conebill, Indigo Flowerpiercer, Golden-fronted Redstart and Red-bellied Grackle. Hummingbirds were a special feature of this tour, we saw an incredible total of 53 species, of these avian gems. We also saw no less than 34 species of antbirds, of various shapes and sizes. We very much enjoyed a sprinkling of migrants from North America, who were just beginning to spend the winter months in Colombia, or just passing through the country, continuing on to wintering grounds, further south in South America. We also found a couple of unexpected species, which is always guaranteed to excite the imagination and added further interest during the tour. On the last day of the tour, while birding in a boat, in flooded forest, at Puerto Inirida, we observed at close quarters, a Plain-crowned Spinetail, which represents a large range extension for this species. We also watched at close quarters, a pair of Chestnut-backed Antshrikes, which similarly represents a large range extension for this species, and it is also the first time this species has been observed in Colombia! We found the people of Colombia genuinely friendly, particularly the indigenous inhabitants, and we are pleased to report that the country is developing rapidly, following years of civil war.

Following a series of long and tiring flights from Australia, we all met up fairly early on the first morning, at the Grace Hotel, in Bogota. We then set off to spend a day birding in the nearby Eastern Andes, not far from the capital. As we drove through the suburbs of Bogota, our first birds in Colombia included Western Cattle Egret, Black Vulture, Southern Lapwing, Feral Pigeon, Eared Dove, Black-billed and Great Thrushes, Rufous-collared Sparrow and Shiny Cowbird. We spent the first couple of hours of the morning birding in mossy forest at Guasca, where we found a number of high elevation species, which included Band-tailed Pigeon, Tropical Kingbird, Brown-bellied Swallow, Golden-fronted Redstart, the stunningly attractive Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager and Black Flowerpiercer. The latter half of the morning, was spent birding in nearby Bahia Andina, in a mixture of farmland and ancient, gnarled, mossy forest. Here we encountered, even more high Andean species, including Andean Teal, Turkey Vulture, the very attractive American Kestrel, Blue-throated Starfrontlet, Great Sapphirewing, Montane Woodcreeper, the range restricted Pale-bellied Tapaculo, White-banded and White-throated Tyrannulets, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant, Gray-breasted Martin, Green Jay, small flocks of Andean Siskins, Blue-backed Conebill, Gray-hooded Bush-Tanager, Fawn-breasted Tanager, Blueish Flowerpiercer and both Pale-naped and Slaty Brush-Finches. In the afternoon, we drove to the Hummingbird Reserve, a privately owned reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota. Here, the undoubted star of the show was the amazing Sword-billed Hummingbird, which we saw brilliantly, and there was a splendid supporting cast of Sparkling Violetear, Amethyst-throated Sunangel, Tyrian Metaltail, Glowing and Coppery-bellied Pufflegs, Black-tailed and Green-tailed Trainbearers and the diminutive White-bellied Woodstar.

The following morning, we drove to Bogota Airport, and boarded the flight to Mitu, deep inside Amazonia, on the border with Brazil. While taxiing along the runway, we observed a White-tailed Kite, hovering, in a patch of grassland, by the side of the runway. Mitu is a fascinating area; a little-explored, but incredibly bird-rich area of the Amazonian lowlands. During our time here, we explored, white-sand, terra firme and varzea forests, and the avian diversity was simply incredible. Following lunch, we did some birding in secondary forest and a little flooded forest, new birds came thick and fast; and included the rapidly declining Greater Yellow-headed Vulture, Plumbeous Kite, Roadside Hawk, Black Caracara, the dashing Bat Falcon, Plain-breasted Ground-Dove, Plumbeous Pigeon, Cobalt-winged Parakeet, Smooth-billed Ani, Gray-rumped Swift, Fork-tailed Palm-Swift, Green-tailed Goldenthroat, Black-throated Mango, White-chinned Sapphire, Green Kingfisher, Swallow-winged Puffbird, the stunningly attractive Spangled Cotinga, Zimmer's Flatbill, the very uncommon Cinnamon Tyrant, Rusty-margined, Social, Piratic and Short-crested Flycatchers, Great Kiskadee, House Wren, the little-known and range restricted Azure-naped Jay, three stunning species of euphonias, Plumbeous, Golden-bellied and White-vented, Silver-beaked, Blue-gray, Palm and Turquoise Tanagers, Yellow-bellied Dacnis, Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch, Yellow-browed Sparrow, Yellow-rumped Cacique, Epaulet Oriole and the brightly coloured Red-breasted Blackbird.

We spent the whole of the following day, birding in tall terra firme forest and white-sand forest; we added a large number of birds to our ever growing trip list, they included Pale-vented Pigeon, Black-headed Parrot, the decidedly uncommon Black-bellied Cuckoo, diminutive Black-throated and Reddish Hermits, the showy Green-backed Trogon, beautiful Bronzy and Paradise Jacamars, Tawny-tufted Toucanet, Chestnut Woodpecker, Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Silvered and Chestnut-crested Antbirds, the amazing Screaming Piha, Golden-headed and Blue-crowned Manakins, Gray Elaenia, the shy Ringed Antpipit, Amazonian Tyrannulet, Rusty-fronted and Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatchers, Sulphury and Dusky-capped Flycatchers, Greyish Mourner, Black-tailed Tityra, Orange-bellied Euphonia, Fulvous-crested and Masked Tanagers, Green Honeycreeper, Blue-black Grassquit, Buff-throated Saltator and the nest-parasitic Giant Cowbird. We also saw a small troop of Mottle-faced Tamarin, a diminutive species of monkey.

Much of the following day was spent searching in particular, for white-sand forest specialities, once again, new birds were plentiful, and included Green Ibis, the attractive Scaled Pigeon, the graceful Black-bellied Thorntail, Amethyst Woodstar, Versicoloured Emerald, Amazon Kingfisher, Lettered and Ivory-billed Aracaris, Yellow-tufted Woodpecker, Olivaceous and Striped Woodcreepers, Yellow-browed and Black-throated Antbirds, Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin, White-crowned Manakin, Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet, Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, Drab Water-Tyrant, the very uncommon Citron-bellied Attila, the attractive White-banded Swallow, Coraya Wren, Rufous-browed Peppershrike, Rufous-bellied Seedeater and both Green and Olive Oropendolas.

Another full day birding around Mitu, produced Blue Ground-Dove, stunningly close looks at a pair of Blackish Nightjars at their day-time roost site, the rarely encountered Strait-billed Hermit, Yellow-billed Jacamar, Amazonian Trogan, Gilded Barbet, Lineated Woodpecker, Plain-brown and Amazonian Barred Woodcreepers, Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner, Mouse-colored, Amazonian and Cinereous Antshrikes, Gray Antwren, Imeri Warbling, Dusky and Black-faced Antbirds, the simply stunning Guianan Cock-of-the-rock, surely, one of the world's most beautiful birds, the very beautiful Plum-throated Cotinga, the rarely observed Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin, the uncommon Western Striped Manakin, White-necked Thrush, Magpie Tanager, the brilliantly coloured Paradise Tanager, Black-faced Dacnis and Purple Honeycreeper.

Our fourth full day birding around Mitu, added the rarely seen Tiny Hawk, Orange-cheeked and Mealy Parrots, Squirrel Cuckoo, Short-tailed Swift, Fiery Topaz, Great-billed Hermit, the highly localised and uncommon Brown-banded Puffbird, Golden-green Woodpecker, the rarely observed Short-billed Leaftosser, Buff-throated Woodcreeper, Plain-winged and Spot-winged Antshrikes, Stipple-throated, Moustached, Yellow-throated and Cherrie's Antwrens, White-browed, Black-chinned and Common Scale-backed Antbirds, Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher and Slate-colored Grosbeak.

Our final morning at Mitu, produced even more new birds, which included Pale-rumped Swift, Rufous-throated Sapphire, Spot-backed and Northern White-fringed Antwrens, White-bearded Manakin, Slender-footed Tyrannulet, Fuscous Flycatcher, Red-eyed Vireo, Brown-headed Greenlet, and the stunningly attractive Yellow-green Grosbeak. In the afternoon, we drove to Mitu Airport, and with some reluctance, left Mitu behind, and flew to Medellin, for an overnight stay.

The following morning, we were up early and headed to the airport for our flight to Bahia Solano, on the Pacific Coast. When we should have been boarding the plane, we were informed that due to bad weather at Bahia Solano, the flight had been delayed. Forty minutes later, we were marched to the plane and we were about to board, when we were informed that, once again, the flight had been delayed, due to bad weather on the coast. An hour later, we boarded the plane, flew to Bahia Solano, but where unable to land because of low cloud, and we were forced to return to Medellin Airport. Half an hour later, we tried once more, and this time, thankfully, we were able to land. We had lost a full morning of birding, but all was not lost, as we had added Bare-faced Ibis, Ruddy Ground-Dove, Vermilion Flycatcher, Cattle Tyrant and Saffron Finch, at the by now, very familiar, Medellin Airport. On our arrival at Bahia Solano, we ate lunch and then drove to the coast at El Valle, where we boarded two boats and headed out to sea, on our way to Utria National Park, which can only be accessed by boat. During the boat trip, we got a little wet and saw our only Laughing Gulls of the tour. An afternoon of birding in Utria National Park afforded us an excellent introduction to the birdlife of the Choco lowlands, and a first class board-walk through the mangroves, provided us with easy access to this unique habitat. In no time at all, we were watching one of our main target birds for this area, the mangrove-loving Humboldt's Sapphire. Other new birds for the tour proved numerous, and included Brown Pelican, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, Great Egret, Tricolored Heron, Snowy Egret, Semipalmated Plover, Whimbrel, Spotted Sandpiper, Willet, Blue-headed Parrot, White-vented Plumeleteer, Crowned Woodnymph, both White-tailed and Gartered Trogons, Ringed Kingfisher, Black-mandibled and Choco Toucans, Flame-rumped and Golden-headed Tanagers, the very showy Red-legged Honeycreeper and Great-tailed Grackle. We also saw a Central American Agouti, while birding in the national park.

The following day, most of the group opted for a long walk, along a rather steep and rugged trail, that lay on the other side of the bay, but still within Utria National Park. Then in the late afternoon, we all went for a walk along the mangrove board-walk. The birding today produced three of the most noteworthy birds of the tour; the Broad-billed Sapayoa, a rare and difficult to find species which is currently placed in a family all of its own, we very much enjoyed the surprise find of a pair of seldom seen Great Curassows, and we also saw the uncommon and very interesting Tooth-billed Hummingbird. Other new birds seen today included Little Blue Heron, Wood Stork, Western Osprey, Swallow-tailed Kite, the highly localised Baudo Guan, Lesser Nighthawk, White-collared Swift, White-whiskered Hermit, Rufous-tailed, Blue-chested and Purple-chested Hummingbirds, both Pied and White-whiskered Puffbirds, Collared Aracari, Black-cheeked Woodpecker, Chestnut-backed Antbird, Purple-throated Fruitcrow, the simply stunning Black-tipped Cotinga, Red-capped Manakin, and both White-thighed and Southern Rough-winged Swallows. We also came across a small mixed species feeding flock, which held such interesting birds as Spot-crowned Antvireo, White-flanked Antwren, Cinnamon Becard, Half-collared Gnatwren, Tawny-crested Tanager, Orange-billed Sparrow, Bananaquit and Scarlet-rumped Cacique. We also saw two more species of mammals today, the Red-tailed Squirrel and the Colombian White-faced Capuchin.

A final early morning walk along the mangrove board-walk, produced yet more new birds, which included Magnificent Frigatebird, the uncommon Crested Guan, the equally uncommon Green-and-rufous Kingfisher and the delightful Blue Dacnis, and Marie saw a Uniform Crake, right next to her cottage. We then boarded the two boats and sailed back to El Valle, a little to the north along the Pacific Coast. During the boat-trip, we sailed through a migrating pod of Humpback Whales. In the afternoon, the heavens opened, which greatly restricted our movements, and in-between torrential tropical downpours, we did a little birding in the grounds of our lodge, and along the road leading to Bahia Solano. New birds included Neotropical Cormorant, Yellow-headed Caracara, Ruddy Turnstone, Greater Yellowlegs, Spot-breasted Woodpecker, Green Heron, Laughing Falcon, Purple Gallinule, the very uncommon Spot-crowned Barbet, Plain Xenops, Lesser Kiskadee, Masked Tityra, Black-chested Jay, Plain-colored Tanager, Variable Seedeater, Thick-billed Seed-Finch and Chestnut-headed Oropendola.

The coastal area of the Choco, is one of the wettest areas in the world, and also, one of the richest areas in the world, for birds. We decided to concentrate our efforts today, along the road from El Valle to Bahia Solano. We were well rewarded, with good looks at a number of interesting species, which included Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, a soaring Black Hawk-Eagle, Wattled Jacana, the range restricted Rose-faced Parrot, Red-lored Parrot, Long-billed Hermit, the stunning Purple-crowned Fairy, Broad-billed Motmot, the very attractive Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Pacific Antwren, Ocellated Antbird, Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant, Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher, the remarkable Long-tailed Tyrant, White-ringed Flycatcher, Bay Wren, Slate-throated Gnatcatcher, Thick-billed Euphonia, Dusky-faced, Crimson-backed, Rufous-winged, Blue-whiskered, Scarlet-browed and Scarlet-and-white Tanagers, and the simply stunning Scarlet-thighed Dacnis

We began the day with some early morning birding around El Valle, where we managed to locate, four particularly attractive new species for the tour; the diminutive Green Thorntail, the striking and range restricted, Cinnamon Woodpecker, the beautiful Blue Cotinga and the reclusive Buff-rumped Warbler. Mid-morning we drove to Bahia Solano and while waiting for our flight to Medellin, some members of the group observed a soaring King Vulture, from the waiting room of the airport! Upon our arrival at Medellin, we began a very long drive to the Las Tangaras Reserve, high in the Andes Mountains. We broke the long drive, with an ice cream stop, in the town of Bolombolo. While enjoying our ice creams, we found a new bird for the tour in the tree outside the ice cream shop, it was a very obliging Red-crowned Woodpecker.

Next, we spent a full day birding in the well-named Las Tangaras Reserve (The Tanagers Reserve), as it is home to some of the most dazzling tanagers in the Americas. We saw no less than 14 species of these colourful tropical birds, during our time in the reserve; which is situated high in the northern end of the Central Andes Mountains. New birds today, in this beautiful cloudforest sanctuary, included Sickle-winged Guan, Chestnut-collared Swift, Andean Motmot, Toucan Barbet, Smoky-brown Woodpecker, Buffy Tuftedcheek, Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner, Red-faced Spinetail, Streak-headed Antbird, Narino Tapaculo, the gorgeous and rarely observed Scaled Fruiteater, Olivaceous Piha, Ornate Flycatcher, Black Phoebe, Blue-and-white Swallow, White-headed and Sharpe's Wrens, Gray-breasted Wood-wren, Black Solitaire, Beautiful Jay, Three-striped Warbler, Slate-throated Redstart, White-lined, Purplish-mantled, Glistening-green, Scrub, Rufous-throated, Golden and Highland Tanagers, Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager, White-naped and Tricolored Brush-Finches, Indigo Flowerpiercer, Olive Finch, Russet-backed Oropendola, Yellow-backed Oriole, and best of all, the highly vulnerable and endemic Black-and-gold Tanager. Towards the end of the day, we spent some time at a large collection of hummingbird feeders, situated inside the reserve. We were able to enjoy a huge range of species of hummingbirds, at very close quarters, and new hummers for the tour included Brown Violetear, Violet-tailed Sylph. Greenish Puffleg, Brown Inca, Velvet-purple Coronet, Booted Racket-tail, White-tailed Hillstar, Purple-bibbed Whitetip, the aptly-named Fawn-breasted, Green-crowned and Empress Brilliants, Purple-throated Woodstar, Andean Emerald and Steely-vented Hummingbird.

We spent the early hours of the morning birding between 2,400-3,000 metres, in montane forest, in the Las Tangaras Reserve. New birds included Moustached Puffbird, Red-headed Barbet, Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner, Handsome and Lemon-browed Flycatchers, the splendid White-capped Dipper and the endangered Red-bellied Grackle, which we saw particularly well. Following lunch, we began the long drive back to Medellin, where we would spend the night. Once again, we broke the long drive, with an ice cream stop at Bolombolo, and once again, we found a new bird for the tour in the grounds of the ice creamery; this time, it was a Tropical Mockingbird.

Bright and early the next morning we set off for the nearby paramo habitat at Sumapaz National Park, which lies above 3,200 metres. Unfortunately, the weather was against us, it was raining hard, there was a strong wind blowing and all in all, it was pretty miserable. Undaunted, but cold, we did some birding at a large lagoon, where new birds for the tour included several Ruddy Ducks and a pair of American Coots. We then positioned ourselves by some flowering bushes, where we enjoyed super looks at our main target bird, the recently split Green-bearded Helmetcrest. Other new birds for us in the grassy paramo, included Bronze-tailed Thornbill, Chestnut-winged Cinclodes, Andean Tit-Spinetail, Pale-edged Flycatcher, Glossy Flowerpiercer and Plumbeous Sierra-Finch. We then heard the call of our second target species for the morning, the endemic Apolinar's Wren. In no time at all, we enjoyed a few glimpses of a pair of these birds, as they attempted to stay low, due to the strong winds. We then drove to Bogota Airport and boarded the flight to the remote frontier town of Puerto Inirida, just thirty kilometres from the Venezuelan border. This Amazonian lowland forest, lies on the edge of the Llanos and Amazon Basins, and consists mainly of Varzea forest, with smaller areas of White-sand forest and savana grasslands. Shortly following our arrival we ate some lunch, enjoyed a short siesta, and then did some birding in seasonally flooded forest, on the edge of town. New birds for the tour during this short birding session, were four very special birds, the attractive Chestnut-fronted Macaw, the splendid Channel-billed Toucan, the very uncommon White-browed Purpletuft and an austral migrant, from southern South America, the superb, Fork-tailed Flycatcher.

We spent much of the following day birding in flooded forest and along the many rivers in the area. New birds for the tour proved plentiful, and included Anhinga, Snail Kite, Black-collared, Crane and Slate-colored Hawks, Great Black-Hawk, the simply stunning Sunbittern, Large-billed Tern, the delightful Scarlet Macaw, Brown-throated Parakeet, Greater Ani, Green-tailed Jacamar, Cream-colored Woodpecker, Black-crested and Blackish-gray Antshrikes, the impressive Bare-necked Fruitcrow, Common Tody-Flycatcher, Boat-billed Flycatcher, White-winged Swallow, Ruddy-breasted Seedeater, Red-capped Cardinal, Velvet-fronted Grackle and Masked Crimson Tanager. One of the other highlights of the day, was the many Amazon River Dolphins we saw.

The following day, we made a special effort to find the very uncommon and highly localised White-naped Seedeater. This required a drive of 15 or so kilometres along a dirt road, and then we had to ford a small river on foot, and this enabled us to reach the habitat were this rare bird lives. Getting to the right habitat proved more difficult than actually finding the bird itself. Fortunately for us, an adult male responded very well to tape playback, and in no time at all, we were enjoying good close looks at this very special bird. There was also a very strong supporting cast of new birds today, which included Black-crowned Night-Heron, Maroon-tailed Parakeet, Orange-winged Parrot, Black-fronted Nunbird, Golden-spangled Piculet, Long-billed Woodcreeper, Guianan Streaked Antwren, the spectacular Amazonian Umbrellabird, both Black and Yellow-crowned Manakins, the little-known Varzea Shifornis, Plain-crested Elaenia, White-lored Tyrannulet, Yellow-throated and Variegated Flycatchers, Thrush-like Wren, Black-faced Tanager, Short-billed Honeycreeper and Eastern Meadowlark.

We spent the following morning birding in forest that surrounded the Mavecure Tepuis, three very impressive rock outcrops that loom 300 metres above the flat Guianan Plain. New birds here included Red-throated Caracara, Common Ground-Dove, White-necked Jacobin, the attractive Ruby-topaz Hummingbird, Glittering-throated Emerald, Orinoco Piculet, Slender-billed Xenops, Yellow Tyrannulet, Red-shouldered Tanager and Gray Seedeater. Along the edge of the rivers, we added Capped Heron, Limpkin, Pied Lapwing and the beautiful Black-collared Swallow. The main target of the afternoon birding, was the recently discovered and almost unknown, Orinoco Softtail, which we saw surprisingly well, other new birds for the tour were the attractive White-necked Puffbird and the highly localised Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant. Today, we also saw a small flock of Southern Long-nose Bats.

The early hours of the following morning were spent birding from a boat in seasonally flooded forest, not far from Puerto Inirida. This proved to be very exciting, we found two species of birds which had never been observed in this area before. We enjoyed supper close looks at a Plain-crowned Spinetail, and best of all, we saw and photographed both male and female Chestnut-backed Antshrike, a species that had never previously been recorded in Colombia. Other new birds for the tour this morning, were Cocoi Heron, Black-eared Fairy, Straight-billed Woodcreeper, Great Antshrike, Black-capped Donacobius and Buff-breasted Wren. We then flew back to Bogota, and drove to the nearby Chicaque Natural Park. Following a superb lunch, we did some birding along the entrance road, where we stumbled across a good sized mixed-species feeding flock of high Andean specialities, which contained several new birds for the tour. The new birds were Streaked Xenops, Smoky Bush-Tyrant, Black-crested Warbler, both Capped and Rufous-browed Conebills, Superciliaried Hemispingus, Blue-and-black and Beryl-spangled Tanagers and Masked and White-sided Flowerpiercers. This was a fitting end, to a very memorable and enjoyable tour.

SYSTEMATIC LIST

PELICANS PELECANIDAE
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis Large numbers observed along the Pacific coast.

CORMORANTS PHALACROCORACIDAE
Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus Small numbers observed in the harbour at El Valle, on the Pacific coast.

ANHINGA ANHINGIDAE
Anhinga Anhinga anhinga Good numbers present along the rivers at Puerto Inirida .

FRIGATEBIRDS FREGATIDAE
Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens Small numbers observed during our time along the Pacific Coast.

HERONS, EGRETS AND BITTERNS ARDEIDAE
Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi A pair of birds observed in flight, along one of the larger rivers at Puerto Inirida.
Great Egret Ardea alba Regularly encountered in small number throughout the tour.
Snowy Egret Egretta thula Regularly encountered along the Pacific coast. The latin word `thula` is an Amur Indian name for the Black-necked Swan, erroneously given to the Snowy Egret!
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea Small numbers scattered along the Pacific coast.
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor A single bird was observed briefly in flight, from the mangrove board-walk, in Utria National Park.
Western Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Common and widespread throughout Colombia.
Green Heron Butorides virescens A single bird, was observed very well on two consecutive days, in a marsh along the road from El Valle to Bahia Solano. It is an uncommon migrant from North America, and was at the extreme southern edge of its range.
Striated Heron Butorides striata Small numbers observed in the wetlands around El Valle, and then became numerous, in the seasonally flooded forests, around Puerto Inirida.
Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus We observed a pair of these uncommon herons along the edge of the river at the base of the Mavecure Tepuis, not far from Puerto Inirida.
Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax A single adult bird was observed in flight, in seasonally flooded forest, close to Puerto Inirida.
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea Healthy numbers observed along the Pacific coast.

STORKS CICONIIDAE
Wood Stork Mycteria americana A flock of 14 birds were observed in flight, by myself, in Utria National Park.           

IBIS AND SPOONBILLS THRESKIORNITIDAE
Green Ibis Mesembrinibis cayennensis Small numbers regularly encountered throughout the tour.
Bare-faced Ibis Phimosus infuscatus Small flocks encountered at Medellin and at El Valle. This species is also know as Whispering Ibis.

GEESE, SWANS AND DUCKS ANATIDAE
Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis Small numbers present in wetlands, close to El Valle.
Andean Teal Anas andium Small numbers observed on a farm dam at Bahia Andina, on the first day of the tour, and then small numbers were observed on lakes in Sumapaz National Park, near Bogota.
Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis We saw a few birds on the same lake as the Andean Teal in Sumapaz National Park, near Bogota.

NEW WORLD VULTURES CATHARITIDAE
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus Commonly encountered everywhere, except at the very highest altitudes in the high Andes.
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura A very common bird throughout Colombia.
Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus In Colombia, this declining species, is only found in Amazonia, where it proved to be common, in the area around Mitu.
King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa Some members of the group were fortunate enough to observe an adult bird circling overhead, from the waiting room of the airport, at Bahia Solano. In order to give the rest of the group a sporting chance, the same bird flew directly in front our plane as we were taking off from the airport. A second bird was observed, by some members of the group, as it soared overhead, close to Puerto Inirida.

OSPREYS PANDIONIDAE
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus Observed frequently along the Pacific coast in Utria National Park, and around Porto Inirida.

KITES, HAWKS AND EAGLES ACCIPITRIDAE
Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus Unfortunately, this stunning bird, was only observed soaring in the distance, on two occasions, during our time in Utria National Park.
White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus Single birds, were observed on three separate occasions, all sightings occurred in or around, the capital city of Bogota.
Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis A solitary immature bird, was observed on three separate
occasions, on the outskirts of Puerto Inirida. This species has not previously been recorded from this part of Amazonia.
Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea Small numbers observed throughout the tour.
Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis Small numbers seen well in the Puerto Inirida area.
Tiny Hawk Accipiter superciliosus A solitary bird of this uncommon and secretive species, flew right past the group, while birding close to Mitu.
Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens This uncommon species was observed well, on one
occasion, while birding from a boat, close to Puerto Inirida.
Slate-colored Hawk Leucopternis schistaceus During the boat trip where we saw the previous species, we had tremendous looks at one of these uncommon birds, perched in a tree, along the riverside.
Great Black-Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga During the same boat trip where we observed the two previous species, we also observed a couple of adults of this species, soaring high above us. This is a very large and impressive species.
Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris Numerous and widespread, in small numbers, throughout the tour.
Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus A single adult bird, was observed soaring overhead, close to El Valle.

CARACARAS AND FALCONS FALCONIDAE
Black Caracara Daptrius ater Commonly encountered during the Amazonian part of the tour.
Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus Observed on only one occasion, along one of the major rivers, close to Puerto Inirida.
Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima A widespread open country falcon, we saw a few birds in farmland close to El Valle.
Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans Seen well on a couple of occasions, when we found single birds perched in trees, close to El Valle.
American Kestrel Falco sparverius Not a common bird in Colombia, we saw a single bird sat in a tall tree, high in the Andes Mountains, at Bahia Andina.
Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis Small numbers observed throughout the tour.

CHACHALACAS, GUANS AND CURRASSORWS CRACIDAE
Baudo Guan Penelope ortoni A pair of these birds, were observed very well, along the mangrove board-walk, in Utria National Park. This species is a near endemic, it also occurs along the north-west coast of Ecuador. This species is classified as Endangered, by `BirdlifeInternational`. The total population is between 7,000 - 21,000 individuals and is
unfortunately, decreasing. The main threat to this species is loss of habitat.
Crested Guan Penelope purpurascens We also observed a pair of this uncommon species, along the mangrove board-walk, in Utria National Park.
Sickle-winged Guan Chamaepetes goudotii Tame birds of this species, frequented the grounds of our lodge, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Great Curassow Crax rubra Once again, we enjoyed very good looks at a pair of this very
handsome species, from the mangrove board-walk, in Utria National Park. This species is
classified as Vulnerable, by `Birdlife International`. The total population is between 6,700 -
40,000 individuals, and is unfortunately decreasing. The main threats to this species are
hunting and habitat loss.

LIMPKIN ARAMIDAE
Limpkin Aramus guarauna A couple of individuals were observed very well, in flooded forest, close to Puerto Inirida.                  

RAILS, GALLINUTES AND COOTS RALLIDAE
Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor A single bird, of this rare species, was observed by Marie right next to her cottage, in Utria National Park. The rest of us heard the bird on many occasions, but unfortunately, failed to see it.
Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica We saw a few birds very well, in wetlands close to El Valle.
American Coot Fulica americana We observed small numbers on the lakes in Sumapaz National Park, near Bogota.

SUNBITTERN EURYPYGIDAE
Sunbittern Eurypyga helias This uncommon but very beautiful bird, was observed well through the bedroom window of my hotel in Puerto Inirida. There was a steady stream of group members coming in and out of my bedroom!

JACANAS JACANIDAE
Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana Seen well in a number of wetland areas at El Valle and Puerto Inirida.

LAPWINGS AND PLOVERS CHARADRIIDAE
Pied Lapwing Vanellus cayanus A pair of these very attractive birds, were observed along the river bank, directly below Mavecure Tepuis, not far from Puerto Inirida .
Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis Widespread and common throughout the tour.
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Small numbers of this North American migrant were present along the Pacific coast in Utria National Park and El Valle.

SANDPIPERS AND ALLIES SCOLOPACIDAE
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius Small numbers of this North American migrant were present along the Pacific coast in Utria National Park and El Valle.
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca Small numbers of this North American migrant were observed in the harbour at El Valle, and on the lakes in Sumapaz National Park, close to Bogota.
Willet Tringa semipalmata Small numbers of this North American migrant were also present along the Pacific coast in Utria National Park and El Valle.
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Small numbers of this North American migrant were scattered throughout Utria National Park.
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres Small numbers of this North American migrant were
present along the beach, in the harbour at El Valle.

GULLS LARIDAE
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla Small numbers of this northern migrant and resident, were observed during the short boat trips along the Pacific coast, to and from Utria National Park.

TERNS STERNIDAE
Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex Seen well on several occasions, during our boat trips, in the Puerto Inirida area.

PIGEONS AND DOVES COLUMBIDAE
Feral Pigeon Columba livia This introduced species was often encountered in the towns and villages of Colombia, where it has become very much a domesticated species.
Pale-vented Pigeon Patagioenas cayennensis Commonly encountered, throughout most areas of the tour.
Scaled Pigeon Patagioenas speciosa We observed a pair of birds in dry scrub, close to Mitu.
Band-tailed Pigeon Patagioenas fasciata One of the most widespread New World birds, ranging from Alaska to Argentina. We saw it in flight on a couple of occasions, at Guasca, on the first day of the tour.
Plumbeous Pigeon Patagioenas plumbea Commonly encountered at Mitu, and particularly so at Puerto Inirida.
Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata A common bird of open areas, which we saw well on several occasions.
Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerina Only observed on one occasion, in dry scrub, close to Puerto Inirida.
Plain-breasted Ground-Dove Columbina minuta Proved to be common, in more open areas, around Mitu.
Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti Small numbers of this widespread species were
observed throughout the tour.
Blue Ground-Dove Claravis pretiosa An adult male of this uncommon and inconspicuous
species, uncharacteristically, sat out on an open branch on one occasion, while we were
birding, close to Mitu.                                                        

PARROTS PSITTACIDAE
Maroon-tailed Parakeet Pyrrhura melanura This fairly common species was observed well on two separate occasions, the first sighting occurred at Mitu, and the second, at Puerto Inirida.
Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax Small flocks of this rather plain species of parakeet, were regularly encountered, during our time at Puerto Inirida.
Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severus This small and fairly common species of macaw, was observed in small numbers, on a daily basis, at Puerto Inirida.
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao A bird of pristine lowland forest; this stunning bird was observed extremely well, both perched and in flight, on several occasions, close to Puerto Inirida.
Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera We observed many small flocks of this common species, during our time in both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Black-headed Parrot Pionites melanocephalus Small numbers seen well in Mitu and again in Puerto Inirida, where this species has not previously been observed.
Rose-faced Parrot Pyrilia pulchra This uncommon species is a near endemic, only occurring along the Pacific coast of southern Colombia and northern Ecuador, we saw a few birds extremely well, in subtropical forest, close to El Valle.
Orange-cheeked Parrot Pyrilia barrabandi We enjoyed watching a pair of this uncommon
species, which were perched in a nearby tree, not far from Mitu. This species is classified as
Near Threatened, by `Birdlife International`. The total population is currently unknown and
is thought to be stable.
Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus A common bird of lowland forest, which we saw well on several occasions along the Pacific coast.
Red-lored Parrot Amazona autumnalis An uncommon bird of lowland forest, we enjoyed good looks at perched birds, not far from El Valle.
Orange-winged Parrot Amazona amazonica This fairly common species was observed well in flight, on one occasion, at Puerto Inirida.
Mealy Parrot Amazona farinosa This locally common species was seen well at Mitu, and this was followed by even better sightings at El Valle. This species is classified as Near Threatened, by `Birdlife International`. The total population is currently unknown and is thought to be decreasing.

CUCKOOS CUCULIDAE
Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana Seen well on several occasions throughout the tour.
Black-bellied Cuckoo Piaya melanogaster We were very fortunate to observe this uncommon species on two separate occasions. The first, at Mitu and the second at Puerto Inirida.
Greater Ani Crotophaga major This large species of Cuckoo proved to be common along the edge of the rivers, at Puerto Inirida.
Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani Common and widespread throughout Colombia, we saw it very well on many occasions.

NIGHTJARS AND ALLIES CAPRIMULGIDAE
Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis Seen well on a couple of occasions, by some members of the group, in Utria National Park, and seen again on one occasion, at Puerto Inirida.
Blackish Nightjar Caprimulgus nigrescens A pair of birds were seen exceptionally well at their day time roost on the forest floor, at Mitu.

SWIFTS APODIDAE
Chestnut-collared Swift Streptoprocne rutila A small flock of this species was observed in flight, during our time in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris We saw a couple of small flocks, of this common and widespread species, during our time along the Pacific coast.
Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyura We often encountered large flocks of this common
species, flying overhead, in both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Gray-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris Small flocks observed daily, flying over forest, in the Mitu area.
Pale-rumped Swift Chaetura egregia A small flock of this species was observed flying overhead, on one occasion, at Mitu.
Fork-tailed Palm-Swift Tachornis squamata This Amazonian species was commonly encountered, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.

HUMMINGBIRDS TROCHILIDAE
Fiery Topaz Topaza pyra This rare and little known species was observed by Tom, on one
occasion, at Mitu.
White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora This far more common species, was observed briefly, at Mitu, and then much better at Puerto Inirida.
White-whiskered Hermit Phaethornis yaruqui A fairly common bird of the Pacific coast, we saw it very well on one occasion, while walking along the mangrove board-walk, in Utria
National Park.
Straight-billed Hermit Phaethornis bourcieri This uncommon species is confined to the Amazon basin, where we saw it very well on one occasion, close to Mitu.
Long-billed Hermit Phaethornis longirostris A fairly common bird of humid forest, we observed this species very well, feeding in rainforest, at El Valle.
Great-billed Hermit Phaethornis malaris This fairly common species is also confined to
Amazonia, we saw it very well on two separate occasions, at Mitu.
Black-throated Hermit Phaethornis atrimentalis This uncommon species is also confined to Amazonia, we saw it well on one occasion, close to Mitu.
Reddish Hermit Phaethornis ruber This uncommon species is also restricted in distribution to Amazonia, it proved to be not uncommon, at Mitu.
Brown Violetear Colibri delphinae This uncommon species was observed very well at the
hummingbird feeders, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Sparkling Violetear Colibri coruscans This was the commonest species at the hummingbird feeders, in the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota. We also observed it in the Chicaque Natural Park, again close to Bogota.
Tooth-billed Hummingbird Androdon aequatorialis We were very fortunate to enjoy very good, prolonged looks, at this very uncommon species, during our time in Utria National Park.
Purple-crowned Fairy Heliothryx barroti Seen well on one occasion, in the rainforest at El Valle.
Black-eared Fairy Heliothryx auritus This uncommon species was observed by some members of the group at Mitu, and this was followed by a much better sighting, on the last day of the tour, at Puerto Inirida.
Green-tailed Goldenthroat Polytmus theresiae Another species which is confined to Amazonia, where we saw it well, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Ruby-topaz Hummingbird Chrysolampis mosquitus We were very fortunate to observe this uncommon, but very striking species of hummingbird, in rainforest at Puerto Inirida.
Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis Proved to be fairly common, during our time at Mitu.
Amethyst-throated Sunangel Heliangelus amethysticollis This striking species of hummingbird, was observed extremely well at the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota, and again, in the Chicaque Natural Park, close to Bogota.
Black-bellied Thorntail Discosura langsdorffi This extremely attractive and uncommon species of hummingbird, was observed on only one occasion, however, it sat at eye level in a small tree, allowing itself to be photographed by all who cared to do so, during our time at Mitu.
Green Thorntail Discosura conversii This equally attractive and uncommon species, was
observed extremely well, on one occasion, close to El Valle.
Violet-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus coelestis We enjoyed many fantastic views of both males and females of this superb Choco endemic, at the hummingbird feeders, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Black-tailed Trainbearer Lesbia victoriae We enjoyed very good looks at this beautiful high Andean endemic, at the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota, on the first day of the tour. We saw it a second time, in the Chicaque Natural Park.
Green-tailed Trainbearer Lesbia nuna Observed briefly at the hummingbird feeders, in the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota.
Bronze-tailed Thornbill Chalcostigma heteropogon Observed briefly, by some members of the group, in Sumapaz National Park, in the high Andes, close to Bogota.
Green-bearded Helmetcrest Oxypogon guerinii This brilliantly spectacular species was seen well feeding on Espeletia shrubs in the high Paramo, of Sumapaz National Park, near Bogota.
Tyrian Metaltail Metallura tyrianthina We enjoyed many good sightings of this widespread and common species, in the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota
Greenish Puffleg Haplophaedia aureliae Seen well at the hummingbird feeders in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Glowing Puffleg Eriocnemis vestita This attractive species was observed very well on the first day of the tour, at the hummingbird feeders in the Hummingbird Reserve, close to Bogota, and again, on the last day of the tour, in the Chicaque Natural Park, close to Bogota.
Coppery-bellied Puffleg Eriocnemis cupreoventris We enjoyed very good close looks at this uncommon species, at the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota. This species is classified as Near Threatened, by `Birdlife International`. The total population is unknown, and is thought to be decreasing.
Brown Inca Coeligena wilsoni We enjoyed good looks at this Choco speciality at the
hummingbird feeders in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Blue-throated Starfrontlet Coeligena helianthea We observed this common species very well at Bahia Andina, on the first day of the tour, and we also saw it well at the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota.
Sword-billed Hummingbird Ensifera ensifera We observed this very impressive species, extremely well, at the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota.
Great Sapphirewing Pterophanes cyanopterus We observed this fairly common species in elfin timberline forest, at Bahia Andina, on the first day of the tour.
Velvet-purple Coronet Boissonneaua jardini Seen on many occasions at the hummingbird feeders in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Booted Racket-tail Ocreatus underwoodii We observed several of these spectacular hummingbirds, at the hummingbird feeders, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
White-tailed Hillstar Urochroa bougueri Observed regularly at the hummingbird feeders in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Purple-bibbed Whitetip Urosticte benjamini This stunningly attractive bird proved to be
conspicuous around the hummingbird feeders, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Fawn-breasted Brilliant Heliodoxa rubinoides Seen well on a couple of occasions at the
hummingbird feeders, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Green-crowned Brilliant Heliodoxa jacula Commonly encountered at the hummingbird feeders, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Empress Brilliant Heliodoxa imperatrix This uncommon species is one of the many Choco
specialities that we saw at the hummingbird feeders, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
White-bellied Woodstar Chaetocercus mulsant Proved to be a fairly common visitor to the hummingbird feeders, at the Hummingbird Reserve, on the outskirts of Bogota.
Purple-throated Woodstar Calliphlox mitchellii This beautiful species was observed well at the hummingbird feeders in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Amethyst Woodstar Calliphlox amethystina We were extremely fortunate to enjoy good looks at this species, which is very rare bird in Colombia. We saw it well, on one occasion, close to Mitu.
White-vented Plumeleteer Chalybura buffonii Seen well on a few occasions in Utria National Park, and at the hummingbird feeders, around our hotel, at El Valle.
Crowned Woodnymph Thalurania colombica Proved to be very common in Utria National Park, and we also observed it in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Versicoloured Emerald Amazilia versicolor A common hummingbird of Amazonia, which we saw well on a couple of occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Andean Emerald Amazilia franciae Observed very well feeding at the hummingbird feeders in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Glittering-throated Emerald Amazilia fimbriata This common species of hummingbird, is
restricted in distribution to Amazonia, where we saw it well on a couple of occasions, close
to Puerto Inirida.
Blue-chested Hummingbird Amazilia amabilis We observed this uncommon species, extremely well, along the mangrove board-walk, in Utria National Park, and again, in rainforest at El Valle.
Purple-chested Hummingbird Amazilia rosenbergi This very uncommon hummingbird, is a near endemic to the Pacific coast of Colombia. Some members of the group saw it well, on a couple of occasions, along the mangrove board-walk, in Utria National Park.
Steely-vented Hummingbird Amazilia saucerrottei Commonly encountered at the hummingbird feeders in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia tzacatl This common and widespread species, was
regularly encountered in Utria National Park, at El Valle, and again, in the Las Tangaras
Reserve.
Humboldt's Sapphire Hylocharis humboldtii This species is an uncommon inhabitant of
mangroves along the Pacific coast. Fortunately, we saw it very well, along the mangrove
board-walk, in Utria National Park.
Rufous-throated Sapphire Hylocharis sapphirina This species, is a rare bird of the Amazonian lowlands. We saw it well on two separate occasions; once at Mitu, and again, at Puerto Inirida.
White-chinned Sapphire Hylocharis cyanus Another Amazonian speciality, which we saw very well on one occasion, at Mitu.

TROGONS AND QUETZALS TROGONIDAE
White-tailed Trogon Trogon chionurus Proved to be fairly common along the Pacific coast in Utria National Park and at El Valle.
Green-backed Trogon Trogon viridis A common Amazonian speciality, which we saw well, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Gartered Trogon Trogon caligatus We enjoyed great looks at pair of birds, on one occasion, in Utria National Park.
Amazonian Trogon Trogon ramonianus As the name would imply, this is another Amazonian speciality, which we saw well, on a couple of occasions, at Mitu.

KINGFISHERS ALCEDINIDAE
Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata Small numbers observed throughout the tour; this is the largest species of kingfisher in the Americas, and the worlds second largest species.
Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona This species proved to be common along rivers and larger lakes, at both Mitu, and Puerto Inirida.
Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana A common species, which we observed on many
occasions throughout the tour.
Green-and-rufous Kingfisher Chloroceryle inda This very uncommon and shy species was observed in flight, on one occasion, from the mangrove board-walk, in Utria National Park.

MOTMOTS MOMOTIDAE
Andean Motmot Momotus aequatorialis Up until very recently, the common name of this
species was Highland Motmot, it is now known as Andean Motmot. We enjoyed a very
good sighting of this species, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum This fairly common species,was observed well, by some members of the group, in the grounds of our lodge, at El Valle.  

JACAMARS GALBULIDAE
Yellow-billed Jacamar Galbula albirostris This uncommon bird of Amazonia, was seen very well on a couple of occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda This locally common species, was observed
particularly well, in rainforest at El Valle.
Green-tailed Jacamar Galbula galbula A fairly common bird of swampy and riparian forests, which we saw well on one occasion, at Puerto Inirida.
Bronzy Jacamar Galbula leucogastra We observed this fairly common species very well, on one occasion, close to Mitu.
Paradise Jacamar Galbula dea A locally common Amazonian endemic, which we saw well, on a couple of occasions, during our time at Mitu.

PUFFBIRDS BUCCONIDAE
White-necked Puffbird Notharchus hyperrhynchus A typically lethargic, species of puffbird, which tends to perch in the canopy in the early mornings, but settles lower down by mid-morning, and then rarely moves. Therefore, we were very fortunate to see this bird very well, on a couple of occasions, during our time at Puerto Inirida.
Brown-banded Puffbird Notharchus ordii Rare, and very local, in White-sand forest of Amazonia, where it is seldom recorded. Therefore, we were very fortunate to enjoy
prolonged looks at a characteristically motionless bird, along the edge of a road, close to
Mitu.
Pied Puffbird Notharchus tectus We observed this fairly common species on a daily basis, along the Pacific coast.
White-whiskered Puffbird Malacoptila panamensis We saw this quiet and inconspicuous species, perched in the rainforest, in Utria National Park.
Moustached Puffbird Malacoptila mystacalis An uncommon and inconspicuous bird of the
Andes Mountains, we found a solitary bird, which allowed good prolonged looks, in the Las
Tangaras Reserve.
Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons We observed this common species very well, on a few occasions, during our time at Puerto Inirida.
Swallow-winged Puffbird Chelidoptera tenebrosa A common Amazonian speciality, which we saw well on many occasions.

BARBETS CAPITONIDAE
Spot-crowned Barbet Capito maculicoronatus We saw this fairly common species very well, on a few occasions, while birding at El Valle.
Gilded Barbet Capito auratus A common Amazonian species, which we saw very well, on a
couple of occasions, while birding at Mitu.
Red-headed Barbet Eubucco bourcierii A common bird of the Andes Mountains, which we saw well on one occasion, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Toucan Barbet Semnornis ramphastinus Almost endemic to Colombia, it only occurs in humid foothill forest, on the Pacific slope of the western Andes. We were very fortunate to see this large and very beautiful species of barbet very well, on two separate occasions, during our time in the Las Tangaras Reserve. This species is classified as Near Threatened by Birdlife International.

TOUCANS RAMPHASTIDAE
Lettered Aracari Pteroglossus inscriptus A fairly common inhabitant of secondary forest, in Amazonia. We saw it very well on two separate occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Collared Aracari Pteroglossus torquatus Seen well on a couple of occasions, during our time along the Pacific coast.
Ivory-billed Aracari Pteroglossus azara A common bird of Amazonia, which we saw well on one occasion, during our time at Mitu.
Tawny-tufted Toucanet Selenidera nattereri This small species of toucan, was observed
extremely well, on one occasion, during our time at Mitu.
Black-mandibled Toucan Ramphastos ambiguus This large species of toucan, was observed well in the Utria National Park and at El Valle, both sightings occurred along the Pacific coast. This species is classified as Near Threatened by Birdlife International.
Choco Toucan Ramphastos brevis This species is a near endemic in Colombia, and as the name would suggest it is confined to the Choco area along the Pacific coast. We observed it on a daily basis in Utria National Park and at El Valle.
Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus This species was also seen well on a couple of occasions at Puerto Inirida.

WOODPECKERS AND ALLIES PICIDAE
Orinoco Piculet Picumnus pumilus This near endemic was seen very well, in lowland forest, at Puerto Inirida.
Golden-spangled Piculet Picumnus exilis An uncommon resident of riparian forest, we observed it for a prolonged period of time, on one occasion, at Puerto Inirida.
Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus A common resident of Amazonia, which we saw well, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Black-cheeked Woodpecker Melanerpes pucherani Commonly encountered along the Pacific coast.
Red-crowned Woodpecker Melanerpes rubricapillus We first observed this common and
conspicuous species, at our first ice cream stop, at Bolombolo, and then it proved common
in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Smoky-brown Woodpecker Picoides fumigatus Our first sighting occurred in the Las Tangaras Reserve, and this was followed by a second sighting, in the Chicaque Natural Park, on the last day of the tour.
Golden-green Woodpecker Piculus chrysochloros A local and uncommon species of semi-open forest, in the Amazonian lowlands. We saw it very well on one occasion, at Mitu.
Spot-breasted Woodpecker Colaptes punctigula This fairly common resident was first recorded nesting in the grounds of a hotel at El Valle. This was followed by a couple of other good sightings, during our time in Puerto Inirida.
Cinnamon Woodpecker Celeus loricatus A local and uncommon species of the Pacific coast. We enjoyed good long looks at a single bird, close to El Valle.
Chestnut Woodpecker Celeus elegans A common resident of flooded forest in Amazonia, where we saw it well on a couple of occasions, while birding at Mitu.
Cream-colored Woodpecker Celeus flavus This attractive and common species of woodpecker, was seen well on one occasion, at Puerto Inirida.
Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus A common resident of semi-open forest, which we saw well on several occasions, throughout the tour.
Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos A very attractive and common species of woodpecker, which we saw well on a few occasions, throughout the tour.

SAPAYOA SAPAYOIDAE
Broad-billed Sapayoa Sapayoa aenigma Some members of the group enjoyed good looks at this rather plain species, while birding in Utria National Park. This species is in a family of its own, and is an uncommon resident.

OVENBIRDS AND WOODCREEPERS FURNARIIDAE
Short-billed Leaftosser Sclerurus rufigularis We were indeed fortunate to observed one of these uncommon and difficult to see birds, of the Amazonian lowlands. We saw it very well, as it was feeding on the ground, close to Mitu.
Chestnut-winged Cinclodes Cinclodes albidiventris A common bird of the high paramo grasslands, in the Andes Mountains. We saw a few birds very well, along the edge of lakes
in Sumapaz National Park, not far from Bogota.
Andean Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura andicola This species is a fairly common bird of Polylepis woodland. Some members of the group observed this bird, during our time in Sumapaz National Park.
Plain-crowned Spinetail Synallaxis gujanensis On the last day of the tour while birding from a boat in flooded forest, not far from Puerto Inirida, we saw and photographed one of these birds, which we watched for an extended period of time. It was the first time that this
species had been seen in this part of Colombia, and the sighting represents a very large range extension for this species.
Red-faced Spinetail Cranioleuca erythrops This species of spinetail of foothill forest, was seen very well in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Orinoco Softtail Thripophaga cherriei This species is new to science and as only recently been described. It did not make it into the field guide! Following a great deal of searching, a bird responded well to tape and came very close to our boat, while we were birding in
flooded forest, not far from Puerto Inirida. This species is classified as Vulnerable, by `Birdlife International`. The total population is between 250 - 1,000 individuals, and is
thought to be decreasing. This species has a minuscule range, and we did very well to find
it.
Buffy Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes lawrencii Seen well in one of the mixed-species feeding flocks we encountered in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner Anabacerthia variegaticeps We saw this bird very well in a mixed-species feeding flock in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner Philydor ruficaudatum A rare bird of humid foothill forest, in Amazonia, we were very fortunate to observe one of these birds very well, while birding close to Mitu.
Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Philydor rufum A rather uncommon and difficult to observe species of the rainforest undergrowth. We were very fortunate to see it very well, on a couple of occasions, during our time in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Montane Foliage-gleaner Amabacerthia striaticollis Observed briefly by some members of the group, in a mixed-species feeding flock, while birding at Bahia Andina, on the first day of the tour.
Slender-billed Xenops Xenops tenuirostris A rare bird in the flooded forests of Amazonia. We were very fortunate to observe this bird very well, in a mixed-species feeding flock, close to the Mavecure Tepuis, not far from Puerto Inirida.
Plain Xenops Xenops minutus A couple of birds were seen well in rainforest, at El Valle.
Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans We saw this species very well, in a mixed-species feeding flock at Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Rufous-tailed Xenops Microxenops milleri An uncommon bird of Amazonia, some members of the group observed it well on one occasion, in a mixed-species feeding flock, close to Mitu.
Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa A very large species of woodcreeper, which we saw well on one occasion, in a mixed-species feeding flock close to Mitu.
Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus This is a common species of woodcreeper which we saw well on two separate occasions, in the Mitu area.
Long-billed Woodcreeper Nasica longirostris As the name would suggest, this very large species of woodcreeper, has an incredibly long, white bill. We saw it very well, on one occasion, while birding close to Puerto Inirida.
Strong-billed Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus We observed this uncommon species very well, on one occasion, close to Mitu.
Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes certhia Another large species of woodcreeper, which we saw well, feeding in the understorey, in rainforest, not far from Mitu.
Straight-billed Woodcreeper Dendroplex picus A bird that occurs close to water, in the
Amazonian lowlands. We saw it very well, on one occasion, close to Puerto Inirida.
Striped Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus obsoletus An uncommon bird of flooded forest in
Amazonia. We observed this species well, while birding not far from Mitu.
Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus The commonest woodcreeper in Amazonia, we encountered it on a few occasions, in both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Montane Woodcreeper Lepidicolates lacrymiger This attractive and well-marked species of woodcreeper was observed by some members of the group, at Bahia Andina.

TYPICAL ANTBIRDS THAMNOPHILIDAE
Great Antshrike Taraba major A pair of this large and fairly common species, was observed extremely well, in flooded forest, close to Puerto Inirida, on the last day of the tour.
Black-crested Antshrike Sakesphorus canadensis A common but attractive bird, which we saw well on a couple of occasions, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
Chestnut-backed Antshrike Thamnophilus palliatus While birding from a boat in flooded
forest, not far from Puerto Inirida, on the last day of the tour, we stumbled across this
species. We watched the pair for an extended period of time and we obtained good
photographs of both the male and the female. This is the first time that this species has been recorded in Colombia, and represents a massive range extension, for this species.
Plain-winged Antshrike Thamnophilus schistaceus This very plainly coloured species, popped up along the side of a track, at Mitu, and we were able to have a good, close look at it.
Mouse-colored Antshrike Thamnophilus murinus A fairly common inhabitant of sandy belt forest, which we were able to examine closely, on one occasion, at Mitu.
Blackish-gray Antshrike Thamnophilus nigrocinereus A fairly common species of Amazonia, which popped up in front of us, during our birding walks at Puerto Inirida.
Amazonian Antshrike Thamnophilus amazonicus As the name would suggest, this species is endemic to Amazonia, we saw it well on several occasions, at both Mitu and Puerto
Inirida.
Spot-crowned Antvireo Dysithamnus puncticeps A fairly common bird of the Pacific coast forests, we saw it well, during our time in Utria National Park.
Cinereous Antshrike Thamnomanes caesius This Amazonian endemic, was picked out amongst a mixed-species feeding flock, close to Mitu.
Spot-winged Antshike Pygiptila stellaris Some members of the group observed this common species of antshrike, during our time at Mitu.
Stipple-throated Antwren Epinecrophylla haematonota We saw a pair of this uncommon
Amazonian endemic, foraging low in the rainforest, at Mitu.
Moustached Antwren Myrmotherula ignota This common and widespread species, was seen well on a couple of occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Yellow-throated Antwren Myrmotherula ambigua We were delighted to observe this very uncommon and brightly plumaged antwren, during one of our birding forays, at Mitu.
Guianan Streaked Antwren Myrmotherula surinamensis We watched a pair of this very
uncommon species, foraging low down, along the edge of a river, at Puerto Inirida. This
species is classified as Vulnerable, by `Birdlife International`. The total population is
unknown, but thought to be stable. The main threat to this species is habitat loss.
Pacific Antwren Myrmotherula pacifica We saw a couple of pairs very well during our time at El Valle.
Cherrie's Antwren Myrmotherula cherriei A common bird of Amazonia, which showed well, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris An attractive and common species, which we saw well at Mitu, Utria National Park and Puerto Inirida.
Gray Antwren Myrmotherula menetriesii A fairly common bird of Amazonia, which proved not uncommon in the Mitu area.
Spot-backed Antwren Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus This uncommon bird is endemic to
Amazonia, we were fortunate to see it well on one occasion, close to Mitu.
Northern White-fringed Antwren Formicivora intermedia This very attractive species is a common bird, which we saw well on a couple of occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Streak-headed Antbird Drymophila striaticeps Endemic to the Andes mountains, we observed this fairly common but attractive species, on one occasion, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Dusky Antbird Cercomacra tyrannina A pair were observed very well, in the dense understorey of lowland forest, during our time at Mitu.
White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys A pair of this fairly common species, were observed well, foraging on the ground, in dense undergrowth, at Mitu.
Black-faced Antbird Myrmoborus myotherinus Seen well on a couple of occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Imeri Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis flavescensx A common bird of Amazonia, which we saw well of a few occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Yellow-browed Antbird Hypocnemis hypoxantha This attractive and uncommon Amazonian endemic, was observed very well, on a couple of occasions, while birding in the Mitu area.
Black-chinned Antbird Hypocnemoides melanopogon This fairly common species, is endemic to the Amazon Basin, north of the Amazon River. A pair was observed foraging over water, while we were birding at Mitu.
Silvered Antbird Sclateria naevia Yet another, fairly common Amazonian endemic, this species feeds along the immediate edge of rivers and lakes. We observed a pair feeding along the edge of a river, close to Mitu.
Chestnut-backed Antbird Myrmeciza exsul This secretive species of the forest understorey, came into tape very well on one occasion, in Utria National Park.
Gray-bellied Antbird Myrmeciza pelzelni For a long period of time, this attractive species, was only known from old museum skins, and has only recently been rediscovered. It has an incredibly small range, it only occurs in White-sand forest, where Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil meet. We saw it very well, at Mitu.
Black-throated Antbird Myrmeciza atrothorax A widespread Amazonian endemic, which we observed on one occasion, in stunted savanna woodland, at Mitu.
Chestnut-crested Antbird Rhegmatorhina cristata Another Amazonian endemic, this species has a very small range, and only occurs on White-sand forest. We were very fortunate, to observe a stunning male bird, not far from Mitu.
Scale-backed Antbird Willisornis poecilinotus Another widespread Amazonian endemic, which performed well for us, on one occasion, during our time at Mitu.
Ocellated Antbird Phaemnostictus mcleannni Observed briefly, by a couple of members of our group, in the grounds of our lodge, at El Valle.

TAPACULOS RHINOCRYPTIDAE
NariTapaculo Scytalopus vicinior A bird responded well to tape playback, showing well, in the
Las Tangaras Reserve.
Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopus griseicollis Endemic to the high Andes of Colombia, a male bird responded well to tape playback, on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina.

COTINGAS COTINGIDAE
Scaled Fruiteater Ampelioides tschudii We were extremely fortunate to enjoy prolonged looks at an adult male, of this rare species, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
White-browed Purpletuft Iodopleura isabellae This diminutive, attractive species, is anuncommon Amazonian endemic. Valerie pointed out a bird perched in a nearby tree, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
Guianan Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola rupicola This stunning looking bird, is an uncommon Amazonian endemic, which only occurs in areas of rocky outcrops, in humid lowland forest. This habitat requirement, severely limits the distribution of this beautiful bird. Following a great deal of searching, close to Mitu, we were rewarded with good looks, at this amazingly plumaged bird, little wonder then, that it was voted 'Bird of the Tour', by tour participants.
Olivaceous Piha Snowornis cryptolophus Endemic to the Andes mountains, we observed one of these scarce and unobtrusive birds, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata This attractive species of cotinga, proved to be fairly common, in Utria National Park and at El Valle, where we observed it on a daily basis.
Amazonian Umbrellabird Cephalopterus ornatus This is without a doubt, one of the most bizarre looking birds, in the avian world. As the name would suggest, this rarely encountered species, is endemic to the Amazon Basin, where it occurs in forested areas along the edge of large rivers and in adjacent seasonally flooded forest. This is exactly the habitat where we enjoyed great looks at this bird, on two separate occasions, at Puerto Inirida.
Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattererii This beautiful and rare bird, is endemic to the Choco of Panama and Colombia. Our first sighting took place in Utria National Park, and this was followed by a second, much better sighting, at El Valle.
Plum-throated Cotinga Cotinga maynana Another very beautiful bird, which is endemic to Amazonia. We enjoyed good scope views, of a single bird, not far from Mitu.
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayana Arguably, the most attractive of all the cotingas; this Amazonian endemic proved to be fairly common, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans Perhaps the most lack lustre, of all the cotingas, this locally common species, is known for its amazing call, which is one of the most distinctive sounds of the Amazonian lowlands. We tracked it down by its call, on one of the tracks, at Mitu.
Black-tipped Cotinga Carpodectes hopkei This very handsome and rare Choco endemic, is confined to the south coast of Colombia and in a small area in the extreme south of Panama. We enjoyed good looks at a few stunningly beautiful males, during our time in Utria
National Park and at El Valle.
Bare-necked Fruitcrow Gymnoderus foetidus This large species of cotinga, is endemic to Amazonia, where it is a fairly common resident. We observed it on a couple of occasions,
while birding at Puerto Inirida.

MANAKINS PIPRIDAE
Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin Neopelma chrysocephalum This rather drab species of manakin, is an uncommon resident of Amazonia, north of the Amazon River. We were very fortunate to enjoy good close looks at a single bird, during our time at Mitu.
Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin Tyranneutes stolzmanni This minute species of manakin, is a fairly common Amazonian endemic. Given its small size, its cryptic plumage, and its propensity to sit perfectly still for long periods of time, this species is easy overlooked, and consequently, seldom seen. We were very fortunate to observe a single bird, that came into tape, during out time at Mitu.
Western Striped Manakin Machaeropterus striolatus This uncommon and unobtrusive species of manakin, showed incredibly well, on one occasion, at Mitu.
Blue-crowned Manakin Lepidothrix coronata A fairly widespread and locally common species of manakin, which proved to be common at Mitu.
White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus A common and widespread species of manakin, which we saw particularly well, during our time at Mitu.
Black Manakin Xenopipo atronitens This bird is found almost exclusively in northern Brazil, however, it also occurs in a small section of Amazonia, in Colombia. We saw it well on one occasion, while birding in Puerto Inirida.
Yellow-crowned Manakin Heterocercus flavivertex This very beautiful and large species of manakin, is endemic to a small area of Amazonia, north of the Amazon River, where it is an
uncommon resident. We enjoyed prolonged, very good looks at this beautiful bird, during
our time at Puerto Inirida.
White-crowned Manakin Pipra pipra Another fairly widespread and common species of
manakin, which we saw well on one occasion, at Mitu.
Red-capped Manakin Ceratopipra mentalis A common bird from southern Mexico to coastal areas of Colombia. We observed it briefly on one occasion, while birding in Utria National Park.
Golden-headed Manakin Pipra erythrocephala This very beautiful bird is a fairly common
resident of Amazonia, north of the Amazon River, we saw it very well on one occasion, at
Mitu.
Varzea Schiffornis Schiffornis major This large species of manakin, is an uncommon resident of Amazonia. We saw it surprisingly well, on one occasion, while birding at Puerto Inirida.

TYRANT FLYCATCHERS TYRANNIDAE
White-lored Tyrannulet Ornithion inerme This attractive species of tyrannulet, is widespread throughout northern South America. We saw it particularly well on a couple of occasions, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
White-banded Tyrannulet Mecocerculus stictopterus This uncommon resident, is endemic to the Andes mountains. We saw it very well indeed, in a mixed-species feeding flock, on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina.
White-throated Tyrannulet Mecocerculus leucophrys This attractive species is a common bird, which is also endemic to the Andes mountains. We saw it very well at Bahia Andina, and again at Chicaque Natural Park.
Yellow Tyrannulet Capsiempis flaveola This widespread and uncommon species, was observed well on one occasion, at Puerto Inirida.
Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tyrannulus elatus A common and widespread species, which we saw well, on a few occasions.
Gray Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps This is a widespread but rare species, which we saw very well on one occasion, when a female bird flew very close to us, during our time at Mitu.
Plain-crested Elaenia Elaenia cristata This species occurs mainly in northern Brazil, and also, a small part of the Colombian Amazon, where it is fairly common. We saw a single bird very well, at Puerto Inirida.
Slender-footed Tyrannulet Zimmerius gracilipes An uncommon Amazonian endemic, which we saw well, during our time at Mitu.
Amazonian Tyrannulet Inezia subflava This uncommon species, is endemic to a small part of Amazonia, we had amazingly close looks at this species at Mitu, and again, at Puerto Inirida.
Ornate Flycatcher Myiotriccus ornatus This very attractive species, is a fairly common endemic of the Andes Mountains. It proved to be common, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Ringed Antpipit Corythopis torquatus This aberrant species of tyrant- flycatcher, looks more like a pipit, than a flycatcher. It is an uncommon Amazonian endemic. A single bird performed very well for us, as it responded well to tape playback, during our time at Mitu.
Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant Stigmatura napensis This uncommon species is basically confined to the Amazon River and one or two of its major tributaries in the Orinoco Basin. We saw a single bird very well, while birding from the boat, in flooded forest, not far from Puerto Inirida, in the Orinoco Basin.
Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant Myiornis atricapillus This tiny species of flycatcher occurs from Costa Rica to Colombia. In Colombia, it is an uncommon resident of the Choco, we
observed it extremely well, on a couple of occasions, at El Valle.
Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher Poecilotriccus latirostris An uncommon resident of Amazonia, this rather attractive species, showed well on a couple of occasions, at Mitu.
Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum A fairly common and widespread species throughout northern South America. Somewhat surprisingly, we saw this species on only one occasion, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum nigriceps This very attractive species occurs from Costa Rica to coastal Colombia, where it is an uncommon resident. We saw it very well, at El Valle.
Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum Yet another uncommon
Amazonian endemic, and once again, we saw it well during our time at Mitu.
Zimmer's Flatbill Tolmomyias assimilis Very recently, the Yellow-margined Flycatcher has been split into a number of different species. The race occurring in Colombia, is now known as Zimmer's Flatbill. We saw it well at Mitu, and again at Puerto Inirida.
Yellow-breasted Flycatcher Tolmomyias flaviventris This species is a fairly common and
widespread species, throughout northern South America. We saw it well at both Mitu and
Puerto Inirida.
Handsome Flycatcher Nephelomyias pulcher This species is an uncommon endemic of the Andes mountains, we observed it briefly, on one occasion, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus This uncommon and widespread species, was observed well, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Cinnamon Manakin-Tyrant Neopipo cinnamomea This tiny Amazonian endemic, is a a rare and seldom seen resident. We were extremely fortunate, to enjoy close and prolonged looks at this rare bird, during our time at Mitu.
Cinnamon Flycatcher Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus This attractive species of flycatcher, is a fairly common endemic, of the Andes Mountains. We saw it very well on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina, and we also saw it in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Fuscous Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus This uncommon, and widespread species, was
observed well, on one occasion, at Mitu.
Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans This widespread species of fast flowing mountain streams, proved common, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus Somewhat surprisingly, this fairly common and widespread species, was only seen at Medellin Airport, we saw it in exactly the same place, on two separate occasions.
Drab Water Tyrant Ochthornis littoralis As the name would suggest, this is a rather sombre coloured species of flycatcher, which occurs along the edge of rivers and lakes. It is a fairly common Amazonian endemic, which we saw well, at Mitu, and again at Puerto Inirida.
Smoky Bush-Tyrant Myiotheretes fumigatus This rather drab species, is an uncommon bird, which is endemic to the Andes Mountains. We saw it particularly well, on the last day of the tour, at Chicaque Natural Park, close to Bogota.
Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca fumicolor This common species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains, we saw it very well, on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina.
Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus This stunningly attractive species of New World flycatcher, is a fairly common and widespread species, which we observed very well, on a couple of occasions, at El Valle.
Cattle Tyrant Machetornis rixosa This common and widespread species, was observed by some members of our group, at Medellin Airport.
Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer A common and widespread species, which we saw very well, during our time at Mitu.
Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox Another common and widespread species, which we saw well on several occasions, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Pale-edged Flycatcher Myiarchus cephalotes This bird is endemic to the Andes Mountains, where it is a locally common species of foothill forest, we saw it very well in the Sumapaz National Park, close to Bogota.
Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua This uncommon and widespread species, was seen by Tom, on one occasion, at Puerto Inirida.
Lesser Kiskadee Pitangus lictor This fairly common and widespread species, is found along the edge of water. We saw it well at El Valle and Puerto Inirida.
Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus This very common and widespread species, was frequently observed throughout lowland areas of disturbed forest, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis This common and widespread species, was commonly encountered throughout the whole tour.
Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis This widespread and very common species, is a bird of open areas, which we saw exceptionally well, on numerous occasions throughout the tour.
White-ringed Flycatcher Conopias albovittatus This uncommon resident, occurs from Honduras, to the Pacific coast of Colombia. We observed an individual very well, on one occasion, while birding at El Valle.
Yellow-throated Flycatcher Conopias parvus This uncommon resident, is mainly confined to Amazonia, north of the Amazon River. We saw it well, on one occasion, during our time at Puerto Inirida.
Lemon-browed Flycatcher Conopias cinchoneti This rare species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains. We enjoyed a prolonged look at a single individual, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius This widespread and uncommon species, was seen very well, on a few occasions, while birding at Mitu. It gets its name from its habit of appropriating the nest of caciques, for its own reproductive purposes.
Variegated Flycatcher Empidonomus varius This is a widespread and fairly common species, which we saw very well, on a couple of occasions, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
Sulphury Flycatcher Tyrannopsis sulphurea This rare species is endemic to the Amazon Basin. We saw it well on a couple of occasions, around Mitu.
Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus An abundant and widespread species, which we saw on almost every day of the tour.
Grayish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex An uncommon and widespread species, which some members of the group saw, on one occasion, at Mitu.
Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana This attractive species was first observed at Mitu, it then became common, during our time at Puerto Inirida. These birds were non-breeding migrants, from breeding grounds in Argentina.
Citron-bellied Attila Attila citriniventris This little-known species, is a rare Amazonian endemic. A single bird was observed for a long period of time in White-sand forest, at Mitu.
Black-tailed Tityra Tityra cayana This attractive species is a widespread and fairly common resident, which we saw well at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata Another widespread and fairly common resident, which we saw well, on a couple of occasions, while birding at El Valle.
Cinnamon Becard Pachyramphus cinnamomeus This uncommon resident, occurs from Mexico to the Pacific coast of Colombia. We enjoyed super close looks at this species, while in Utria National Park and at El Valle.

SWALLOWS HIRUNDINIDAE
Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca This swallow is a common and widespread species, but does not occur in Amazonia. We observed a few small flocks, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Black-collared Swallow Pygochelidon melanoleuca This uncommon resident, occurs mainly in Amazonia. We saw a few birds very well, during our time in Puerto Inirida.
Brown-bellied Swallow Orochelidon murina This swallow is a fairly common endemic of the Andes Mountains. We observed good numbers flying around farmland, on the first day of the tour, close to Bogota. The scientific name murina, means mouse-coloured.
White-thighed Swallow Atticora tibialis This species is an uncommon and fairly widespread swallow, which we saw well on one occasion, in Utria National Park.
White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata This attractive species is an uncommon Amazonian endemic. We saw it well, on a few occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis This common and widespread species, proved common in Utria National Park, El Valle and Sumapaz National Park.
Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea A common and widespread species of open areas, which we observed in small numbers, throughout the tour.
White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer We observed this common and widespread species, on a daily basis, while at Puerto Inirida.

DIPPERS CINLIDAE
White-capped Dipper Cinclus leucocephalus This very attractive species, is a fairly common endemic of the Andes Mountains. Where it inhabits fast-flowing rocky mountain streams, exactly the habitat we saw it in, during our time in the Las Tangaras Reserve.

DONACOBIUS DONACOBIIDAE
Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapilla A common and widespread species, which inhabits waterside vegetation, especially around ox-bow lakes. We observed a pair of birds very well, on the last day of the tour, along the edge of a river, close to Puerto Inirida.

WRENS TROGLODYTIDAE
White-headed Wren Campylorhynchus albobrunneus This attractive and uncommon species of wren, is endemic to Panama and coastal Colombia. We saw a bird extremely well, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus This large, and fairly common and widespread species of wren, was seen well, during our time at Puerto Inirida.
Sharpe's Wren Cinnycerthia olivascens This species is a fairly common endemic of the Andes Mountains. We saw an individual very well, in the Las Tangaras Reserve. Richard Bowdler Sharpe (1847-1909) was a British zoologist. He was the Assistant Keeper of the Vertebrate Section of the British Museum's Zoology Department from 1895 until his death from pneumonia in 1909. He had a particular interest in classification and phylogeny and its relation to evolution. He wrote descriptions of over 200 species of birds. He was co- author of the series Birds of Europe. While working for the British Museum in the Department of Zoology, he commenced his massive Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum, which appeared in 27 volumes between 1874 and 1898. Sharpe founded the British Ornithologists' Club in 1892 and edited its Bulletin for many years. The Western
Negrofinch Nigrita (canicapilla) emiliae was originally named after his wife Emily. They had many children, judging by the title of C.E. Jackson's book, published in 1994, Richard Bowdler Sharpe and His Ten Daughters!
Coraya Wren Pheugopedius coraya This fairly common species, is endemic to Amazonia. We saw it well, on one occasion, at Mitu.
Bay Wren Cantorchilus nigricapillus This beautiful species of wren occurs from Nicaragua, southward through Central America, and along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador.
We enjoyed good looks at a fairly cooperative bird, while birding at El Valle.
Buff-breasted Wren Cantorchilus leucotis This fairly common and widespread species of wren, is a bird of thick waterside undergrowth, which was exactly the habitat, where we saw it very well, at Puerto Inirida.
House Wren Troglodytes aedon This common and very widespread species, was observed on almost every day of the tour.
Apolinar's Wren Cistothorus apolinari This rare species, is endemic to Colombia; where it occurs in small areas of marshland and lake-edge vegetation, high above the treeline, in the Andes Mountains. We were indeed fortunate, to enjoy good looks, at this very rare bird, on a terribly windy day, in Sumapaz National Park, near Bogota. This species is classified as Endangered, by `Birdlife International`. The total population is estimated to between 600 - 1,700 individuals, and is unfortunately decreasing. The main threat to this species is continuing habitat loss, and degradation of its already severely fragmented habitat. Brother Apolinar Maria (1877-1949) was a missionary, Colombian monk, and ornithologist. He was Director of the Institute La Salle in Bogota (1914).
Gray-breasted Wood-Wren Henicorhina leucophrys This common resident, occurs from central Mexico, southward through Central America, and then along the Andes Mountains of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. We saw it well, on a couple of occasions, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.

MOCKINBIRDS AND THRASHERS MIMIDAE
Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus A common and widespread species of open country, which we saw only once. During the second ice cream stop at Bolombolo, we observed one in the grounds of the ice cream shop.

THRUSHES AND ALLIES TURDIDAE
Black Solitaire Entomodestes coracinus This uncommon species of thrush, is endemic to the Andes Mountains of southern Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. It is an inconspicuous bird of foothill forest, we were very fortunate to enjoy good looks at an unusually obliging bird, during our time in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis This is a common and widespread species of open
woodland, which we saw well on many occasions.
Great Thrush Turdus fuscater This very common species is endemic to the Andes mountains, where it is very conspicuous.
White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis This fairly common and widespread species, was observed by some members of the group, on one occasion, during our time at Mitu.

GNATCATCHERS POLIOPTILIDAE
Half-collared Gnatwren Microbates cinereiventris A fairly widespread, and fairly common
resident, which we saw well on one occasion, while birding in Utria National Park.
Slate-throated Gnatcatcher Polioptila schistaceigula This resident and rare species occurs from eastern Panama, and then southward along the Pacific coast, to northwestern Ecuador. Some members of the group observed this species on one occasion, during our time at El Valle.

JAYS, MAGPIES AND CROWS, CORVIDAE
Beautiful Jay Cyanolyca pulchra As the name would suggest, this is indeed a very beautiful species, unfortunately, it is a rare and highly localised inhabitant of the Pacific slope of the high Andes Mountains, only occurring from central Colombia, to northwestern Ecuador. It is particularly shy and retiring for a jay. We very much enjoyed watching a family party during our time in the Las Tangaras Reserve. This species is classified at Near Threatened by Birdlife International. Its population is unknown, but it is through to be decreasing. It is particularly sensitive to human disturbance and appears almost exclusively dependent upon undisturbed forest. Since 1960, over 40% of Choco forest has been cleared or degraded, and deforestation continues to accelerate. Unplanned colonisation, following the completion of roads, and massive logging concessions are major threats to its habitat, with cattle-grazing, mining and coca and palm cultivation, also posing further problems.
Black-chested Jay Cyanocorax affinis This uncommon resident, occurs in central America, Venezuela and Colombia. We encountered small flocks in Utria National Park and at El Valle.
Green Jay Cyanocorax yncas This widespread and fairly common bird, is a truly handsome
species, occurs from southern Texas and then southward through central America and along
the Andes Mountains from Venezuela to northern Peru. We had a very quick look at a
family party, on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina.
Azure-naped Jay Cyanocorax heilprini Little is known about this beautiful bird. Which appears to be very local and perhaps, not uncommon. It occurs in a very small area, where three countries meet, extreme eastern Colombia, extreme southern Venezuela and extreme
northwestern Brazil. We saw a couple of birds extremely well, while birding at Mitu.

VIREOS AND ALLIES VIREONIDAE
Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis This common and widespread species, was seen well on a couple of occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus This abundant and very widespread species was observed by Tom, on one occasion, during our time at Mitu.
Brown-headed Greenlet Hylophilus brunneiceps This uncommon resident, is endemic to a small area of Amazonia, north of the Amazon River, in southern Venezuela, eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil. A single bird was observed briefly, while birding in White-sand forest, at Mitu.           

SISKINS, CROSSBILLS AND ALLIES FRINGILLIDAE
Plumbeous Euphonia Euphonia plumbea This uncommon species is endemic to Amazonia, north of the Amazon River. Where it is a White-sand forest specialist. We observed a couple of these birds, in a mixed-species feeding flock, while at Mitu.
Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris This common and widespread species, is the
commonest euphonia in open country and suburban areas. We saw it well at El Valle and at
Puerto Inirida.
Golden-bellied Euphonia Euphonia chrysopasta A common and widespread species, which is endemic to Amazonia. We saw it well at Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
White-vented Euphonia Euphonia minuta A widespread and fairly common bird, which occurs from southern Mexico to Bolivia. We enjoyed good looks at this species on a few occasions, while birding at Mitu.
Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster Another common and widespread euphonia, which occurs in much of northern south America. In Colombia, is the common mid-elevation euphonia. We saw it well at Mitu, Utria National Park and El Valle.
Rufous-bellied Euphonia Euphonia rufiventris This common species, is endemic to Amazonia, we saw it very well on a few occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Andean Siskin Spinus spinescens As the name would imply, this species is endemic to the Andes Mountains, where it is common in Venezuela, Colombia and northern Ecuador. We
observed a few small flocks, while birding in the Andes Mountains, on the first day of the tour, not far from Bogota.

NEW WORLD WARBELRS PARULIDAE
Slate-throated Whitestart Myioborus miniatus In Colombia, this common and widespread species, is a delightful resident of the Andes Mountains, where we saw it well on many occasions, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Golden-fronted Whitestart Myioborus ornatus Another attractive warbler, it is a fairly common species, which is endemic to the Andes Mountains of southern Venezuela, Colombia and northern Ecuador. We observed this species well, in a mixed-species feeding flock, on the first day of the tour, in cloudforest, at Guasca.
Black-crested Warbler Basileuterus nigrocristatus This species of warbler is a fairly common bird, and is endemic to the Andes Mountains. We saw it very well, on the last day of the tour, in the Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Buff-rumped Warbler Myiothlypis fulvicauda A common and widespread species, which occurs right at the waters edge of larger streams and rivers. We glimpsed it on one occasion, while birding at El Valle.
Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus This common species occurs from Costa Rica, and then southwards along the Andes Mountains, to Bolivia. We encountered this species in mid-elevation forest, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.

BANANAQUITE COEREBIDAE
Bananaquit Coereba flaveola An abundant and widespread species, of central and south America, which we observed on most days of the tour.

TANAGERS AND ALLIES THRAUPIDAE
Black-faced Tanager Schistochlamys melanopis This uncommon and widespread species, was seen well on one occasion, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
Magpie Tanager Cissopis leverianus This very beautiful, and very large species of tanager, is common and widespread throughout South America. It was seen briefly, during out time at Mitu.
Superciliaried Hemispingus Hemispingus superciliaris This fairly common species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains. Where it is a bird of dense understorey, we saw it well amongst a mixed-species feeding flock, on the last day of the tour, in Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Gray-hooded Bush-Tanager Cnemoscopus rubrirostris This uncommon species of tanager, is endemic to the Andes Mountains. We observed it well, in a mixed-species feeding flock, on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina.
Blue-backed Conebill Conirostrum sitticolor As the above species, this uncommon species of tanager, is endemic to the Andes Mountains. We observed it well, in a mixed-species feeding flock, on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina.
Capped Conebill Conirostrum albifrons This fairly common species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains, where it is a bird of mixed-species canopy flocks. We observed it well in just such a flock, in the Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Rufous-browed Conebill Conirostrum rufum This species is fairly common, within its very small range, in the Andes Mountains of Venezuela and Colombia. Once again, we observed it well in just such a flock, in the Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Scarlet-and-white Tanager Chrysothlypis salmoni This uncommon and attractive species, only occurs along the Pacific coast of Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. We saw it very on a few occasions, while birding at El Valle.
Dusky-faced Tanager Mitrospingus cassinii This fairly common species, occurs from Costa Rica, southwards through Central America, and along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. It is a bird of the forest understorey, which we saw well on one occasion, while birding at El Valle.
Scarlet-browed Tanager Heterospingus xanthopygius This attractive and fairly common species is endemic to the Pacific Coast of Panama, Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it very well on a few occasions, while birding at El Valle.
Fulvous-crested Tanager Tachyphonus surinamus This fairly common species, is endemic to Amazonia. We saw it well on a couple of occasions, during our time at Mitu.
Tawny-crested Tanager Tachyphonus delatrii This fairly common species, occurs from Honduras, southwards through Central America and along the Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Ecuador. It moves around in family groups and gives its presence away, by making a lot of noise. We saw a few flocks very well, during our time in Utria National Park and at El Valle.
White-lined Tanager Tachyphonus rufus A common and widespread species of tanager, it is a bird of the forest edge, which rarely it ever, goes inside the forest. We saw a couple of pairs, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Red-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus phoenicius This species is an uncommon Amazonian endemic, where it is a White-sand forest speciality. We saw it well on one occasion, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis This common species is endemic to
Amazonia. We saw it well on a couple of occasions, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
Crimson-backed Tanager Ramphocelus dimidiatus This fairly common species occurs only in Panama, Venezuela and Colombia. It is a bird of the lowlands, predominantly in disturbed habitat. It is a very beautiful bird, and we saw it well on a number of occasions, around El Valle.
Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo This attractive species is a common and widespread Amazonian endemic. We observed it on many occasions, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Flame-rumped Tanager Ramphocelus flammigerus This handsome species of tanager, is a fairly common Colombian endemic. We saw it well on many occasions in disturbed habitat, in and around Utria National Park, and at El Valle.
Blue-gray Tanager Thraupis episcopus A widespread and abundant species of tanager, which occurs from Mexico to Peru. We observed it on most days of the tour.
Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum This is a widespread and common species, which occurs from Nicaragua to northern Argentina. We observed it very well, on most days of the tour.
Black-and-gold Tanager Bangsia melanochlamys We saw this stunningly attractive Colombian endemic on a few occasions in the Las Tangaras Reserve. This species is classified as Vulnerable by Birdlife International. Is estimated that the world population is between 600 - 1,700 individuals and decreasing. The main threats to this species are those that increase fragmentation and destruction of its habitat, which include deforestation, cattle ranching, mining, small-scale agriculture and road building. The slopes of Cerro Tatamá have been severely deforested and primary forest, on which the species is dependent, is disappearing in many areas, particularly below 1,500 metres. The species occurs in effectively intact habitat above 1,500 metres in the Mistrató area, and in a large forest block at 800-1,000 metres upwards to above 2,000 metres around Alto de Pisiones. However, the species displays
altitudinal movements when breeding, and in none of the protected areas where it occurs, is the full altitudinal variation represented. A proposed highway in the Alto de Pisiones area, will undoubtedly open up the area to logging, mining and human settlement. Although the region is already inhabited by Embera Indians, their impact on the forest is minimal, however, further colonisation by Europeans, will inevitably lead to deforestation. Rebel separatist activity within its range has prevented recent survey work, and renders government action and research difficult.
Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager Anisognathus igniventris This stunningly attractive species of tanager, is endemic to the Andes Mountains, and occurs from Venezuela to Bolivia. We saw it very well at Guasca, on the first day of the tour, and at Chicaque Natural Park, on the last day of the tour.
Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager Anisognathus somptuosus This species is also endemic to the Andes Mountains, and also occurs from Venezuela to Bolivia. It is the most common mountain-tanager throughout Colombia, we saw it very well, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager Anisognathus notabilis This uncommon species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it well on a couple of occasions, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Purplish-mantled Tanager Iridosornis porphyrocephalus This stunningly plumaged, localised
and very uncommon species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Colombia and northern Ecuador. Fortunately, we saw it very well, during our time in the Las Tangaras Reserve. It is classified as Near Threatened by Birdlife International. The population numbers are unknown and it is thought to be decreasing.
Fawn-breasted Tanager Pipraeidea melanonota A fairly common resident, throughout much of South America. We observed it in a mixed-species feeding flock, on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina.
Glistening-green Tanager Chlorochrysa phoenicotis Another stunningly beautiful species of tanager, which is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it very well, on a couple of occasions, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Plain-coloured Tanager Tangara inornata This uncommon and rather plain species of tanager, occurs from Costa Rica, southwards through Central America, to the Pacific coast and Andes Mountains of northern Colombia. It was seen very well, on one occasion, close to El Valle.
Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana This handsome and uncommon species is endemic to Amazonia and the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. We saw it very well, during our time at Mitu.
Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis This very attractive and fairly common species of tanager, is endemic to the Amazon Basin. We enjoyed very good looks of this species, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Blue-whiskered Tanager Tangara johannae This rare species is endemic to the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it very well on a couple of occasions, while birding at El Valle. This species is classified as Near Threatened by Birdlife International. The population numbers are unknown and it is thought to be decreasing.
Golden Tanager Tangara arthus A fairly common but incredibly beautiful species of tanager, it is endemic to the Andes Mountains, from Venezuela to Bolivia. We saw it well on a few occasions, while birding in cloudforest, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Rufous-throated Tanager Tangara rufigula This stunningly attractive species, is a fairly common endemic of the Andes Mountains of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it well on a few
occasions, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola This species is a fairly common resident of Central and South America. It proved to be common, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Rufous-winged Tanager Tangara lavinia This uncommon species of tanager, occurs from
Guatamala, southwards through Central America and along the Pacific coast of Colombia
and Ecuador. We saw it well on a couple of occasions, while birding at El Valle.
Scrub Tanager Tangara vitriolina This common species is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Colombia and Ecuador. It is a tanager of the forest edge and secondary growth, it proved to be fairly common in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Golden-hooded Tanager Tangara larvata Another spectacular species of tanager, which occurs from southern Mexico, southwards through Central America and along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it very well in Utria National Park, and in the area around El Valle.
Masked Tanager Tangara nigrocincta This uncommon species, is endemic to Amazonia, we saw it well on a few occasions, while birding at Mitu.
Beryl-spangled Tanager Tangara nigroviridis This fairly common and attractive species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains, and occurs from Venezuela to Bolivia. We observed it in a mixed-species feeding flock, in montane forest, in the Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Blue-and-black Tanager Tangara vassorii This uncommon species is endemic to the Andes Mountains, and occurs from Venezuela to Bolivia. We observed it very well, in a mixed- species feeding flock, in montane forest, in the Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Highland Hepatic Tanager Piranga lutea This uncommon and widespread species, was observed very well on a couple of occasions, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Black-faced Dacnis Dacnis lineata This fairly common species, is endemic to Amazonia, we saw it well, on a couple of occasions, in mixed-species feeding flocks, at Mitu.
Yellow-bellied Dacnis Dacnis flaviventer This uncommon species, is also endemic to Amazonia, we saw it well, on a few occasions, at Mitu.
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis Dacnis venusta This attractive and uncommon species, occurs from Costa Rica, southwards through Central America and along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it well on a couple of occasions, while birding at El Valle.
Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana A common and widespread species which occurs throughout Central America and northern South America. It proved fairly common in Utria National Park, and we also saw it well, at Puerto Inirida.
Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza A common and widespread species of Central and South America. It is a species of the forest edge, which we saw well, on a few occasions.
Short-billed Honeycreeper Cyanerpes nitidus This uncommon species, is endemic to Amazonia. We only saw it on one occasion, while birding at Puerto Inirida.
Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus A common and widespread species throughout South America. Which we saw well, on numerous occasions.
Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus A common species of Central and South America. We very much admired this species at close quarters, at the bird feeding tables, at our lodge, at El Valle.

BUNTINGS, SPARROWS, SEEDEATERS AND ALLIES EMBERIZIDAE
Plumbeous Sierra-Finch Phrygilus unicolor This species is a common Andean Mountain
endemic. It occurs from Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South
America. It is a bird of the grassy paramo, above the treeline. We enjoyed good looks at
several of these birds, while birding in Sumapaz National Park, near Bogota.
Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina This is a common and widespread species of Central and South America. We observed small numbers at Mitu, and in Utria National Park.
Gray Seedeater Sporophila intermedia This is a common and fairly widespread species, which occurs in Venezuela, Guyana, Colombia and Northern Brazil. We observed a handful of birds, at the boat ramp, at Puerto Inirida.
Variable Seedeater Sporophila corvina This common species occurs in southern Mexico and then southward through Central America and along the Pacific coast of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. It is a bird of grassy woodland, we saw a couple of family parties, in the grounds of our lodge, at El Valle.
Ruddy-breasted Seedeater Sporophila minuta This beautiful species is also common and
widespread. It occurs from Mexico, southwards through Central America, and then across the northern third of South America. It is a bird of grassy pasture, which we saw well on a
couple of occasions, at Puerto Inirida.
Chestnut-bellied Seedeater Sporophila castaneiventris Another very attractive species, which is endemic to Amazonia. It is a bird of grassy and shrubby clearings, we saw small flocks at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Thick-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus funereus This is also a fairly common species, which occurs from Mexico, southwards through Central America, and then along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw a pair very well, on one occasion, at El Valle.
Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis This species is fairly common and
widespread, and occurs throughout the northern half of South America. It is also a bird of
grassy clearings, we saw a few small flocks, during our time at Mitu.
White-naped Seedeater Dolospingus fringilloides This rare and little known species, occurs only in a small area of Amazonia, north of the Amazon River. It was one of the main target species of the tour, and I am happy to report, that we saw an adult male particularly well, during our time at Puerto Inirida.
Glossy Flowerpiercer Diglossa lafresnayii This fairly common bird is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. It was observed briefly, at the hummingbird reserve, close to Bogota, and then seen much better, at Sumapaz National Park, near Bogota
Black Flowerpiercer Diglossa humeralis This locally common species, is is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. We saw it well in a mixed-species feeding flock, on the first day of the tour, at Guasca.
White-sided Flowerpiercer Diglossa albilatera This flowerpiercer is a fairly common resident, it is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. We saw it well, in a mixed-species feeding flock, on the last day of the tour, at Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Indigo Flowerpiercer Diglossa indigotica This highly localised and fairly common species, is endemic to a small area of the Andes Mountains, from southern Colombia to northern
Ecuador. It is an attractive species, which we saw very well on a couple of occasions, while
birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Bluish Flowerpiercer Diglossa caerulescens This species is a common endemic of the Andes Mountains, of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. We observed it well in a
mixed-species feeding flock, on the first day of the tour, at Bahia Andina.
Masked Flowerpiercer Diglossa cyanea This fairly common and attractive species, is also
endemic to the Andes Mountains. It also occurs in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
We observed it well in a mixed-species feeding flock, on the last day of the tour, at Chicaque Natural Park, near Bogota.
Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola A common and widespread species throughout South America, but absent from Amazonia. A bid of open areas, which we saw well at scattered localities throughout the tour.
Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis This stunningly attractive species, is a fairly common Amazonian endemic. We saw it well on a few occasions, during our boat trips, along the rivers at Puerto Inirida.
Olive Finch Arremon castaneiceps This uncommon and highly localised species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. We saw it well, while birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve. This species is classified as Near Threatened by Birdlife
International. The population numbers are unknown and it is thought to be decreasing.
Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris This elusive and secretive species, is apparently fairly common. It occurs from Mexico, southwards through Central America, and then along the Pacific coast of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. Fortunately for us, a single bird responded well to tape playback, in Utria National Park, allowing us to observe the bird very well.
Pale-naped Brush-Finch Atlapetes pallidinucha This common species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. We saw it well in the high Andes Mountains at Bahia Andina, Sumapaz National Park and Chicaque Natural Park.
White-naped Brush-Finch Atlapetes albinucha This common species occurs from Mexico, southwards through Central America, and then onto the Andes Mountains of Colombia, where it is found in shrubby montane forest. Some members of the group observed this species, while we were birding in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Tricolored Brush-Finch Atlapetes tricolor This uncommon bird is endemic to the Andes
Mountains of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. We observed it well on a couple of occasions, in
mixed-species feeding flocks, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Slaty Brush-Finch Atlapetes schistaceus This common species is endemic to the Andes
Mountains of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. We saw it very well, in cloudforest
at Bahia Andina.
Yellow-browed Sparrow Ammodramus aurifrons This fairly common species of sparrow, is endemic to Amazonia. It is a bird of tropical grassland, and this was the habitat we saw it in on a few occasions, at Mitu.
Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis This handsome species, is an abundant and widespread species, which occurs from Mexico, southwards to Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South America. It proved very numerous at higher elevations in the Andes Mountains.

SALTATORS, CARDINALS AND ALLIES CARDINALIDAE
Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus A common and widespread species, which occurs from Mexico to Brazil. We saw it well at scattered locations throughout the tour.
Slate-colored Grosbeak Saltator grossus This fairly common species occurs from Honduras to Brazil. We only saw it on one occasion, while birding at Mitu.
Yellow-green Grosbeak Caryothraustes canadensis A fairly common species, which occurs mainly in Brazil, and a small area of Amazonia in Colombia. We very much enjoyed
watching a large flock, of a dozen or so birds, in White-sand forest, at Mitu.

TROUPIALS AND ALLIES ICTERIDAE
Red-breasted Blackbird Sturnella militaris This very attractive and common species, occurs from Nicaragua, southwards through Central American and much of northern South America. It is a bird of open grassland that normally occurs close to water. We only observed this species on one occasion, a small flock was seen at the airport, at Mitu. It was the first time that our guide Pablo, had observed this species at Mitu.
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna This common species has a curious distribution, it occurs down the eastern half of North America, from Canada southwards, then through Central America and into the northern part of South America, north of the equator. It is a bird of short grassland, which was exactly the habitat we saw it in, during our time at Puerto Inirida.
Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus This common and widespread species occurs from the United States of America, southwards through Central America and along the the Pacific coast of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it well in Utria National Park and at El Valle.
Red-bellied Grackle Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster This very attractive, but rare and localised
species, is endemic to the Andes Mountains of southern Colombia. We were very fortunate to find a small flock, which we were able to watch at very close quarters, in the Las Tangaras Reserve. This species is classified as Vulnerable by Birdlife International. It is estimated that the world population is between 2,500 - 10,000 individuals and decreasing. The main threat to this species is as usual, deforestation. This species requires the presence of mature forest, and much of its preferred inter-montane subtropical forest habitat has been lost (possibly over 90%) and continues to decrease. The forest has been cleared principally for timber extraction and agricultural development. The remaining forest fragments are subject to continuing human pressure, including opium production.
Velvet-fronted Grackle Lampropsar tanagrinus This fairly common species, is mainly confined to Amazonia. We saw it well, on a couple of occasions, while birding from boats, along the rivers at Puerto Inirida.
Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis This is a very common species, it occurs throughout the West Indies and the whole of South America. It is a bird of open country, particularly farmland. We saw a small number of birds, in Bogota and at Bolombolo. This species is a brood parasite, its numbers must have risen steeply, inline with the rapid deforestation that has taken place in the last 40 years. It is named after Buenos Aires,the capital city of Argentina.
Giant Cowbird Molothrus oryzivorus This fairly common and widespread species, occurs from Mexico, southwards through Central America and much of South America. We saw small numbers at Bahia Andina, Mitu and Puerto Inirida. Like other species of cowbirds, it is a brood parasite, which lays its eggs in the nests of oropendolas and caciques.
Yellow-backed Oriole Icterus chrysater This uncommon species of new world oriole, occurs from Mexico, southwards through Central America and along the Andes Mountains of Venezuela, Colombia and northern Ecuador. We saw it well on one occasion, in the Las Tangaras Reserve.
Epaulet Oriole Icterus cayanensis This fairly common species, is endemic to Amazonia, where we enjoyed many good sightings, at both Mitu and Puerto Inirida.
Scarlet-rumped Cacique Cacicus uropygialis A common species, which occurs from Honduras, southwards through Central America and then along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw it well in Utria National Park and at El Valle.
Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela This common species occurs in Panama and much of northern South America. We saw small numbers of these very beautiful birds, at scattered localities throughout the tour.
Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons A common bird of northwestern South America. We saw it very well, in the Las Tangaras Reserve and at Puerto Inirida.
Green Oropendola Psarocolius viridis This species is a common Amazonian endemic, which we saw very well, during our time at Mitu.
Chestnut-headed Oropendola Psarocolius wagleri This uncommon species of oropendola, occurs from Mexico, southwards through Central America, and along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. We saw a small flock very well, on one occasion, at El Valle.
Olive Oropendola Psarocolius bifasciatus A common Amazonian endemic, which we saw well, during our time at Mitu.

MAMMALS



Red-tailed Squirrel Sciurus granatensis This common species of squirrel was observed very well, on a couple of occasions in Utria National Park.
Central American Agouti Dasyprocta punctata This large species of rodent, was seen well on a couple of occasions during our time in Utria National Park.
Southern Long-nosed Bat Leptonycteris curasoae This is one of the most commonly seen and locally well known bats, in South America. They roost in the open, either over or beside water, usually, on leaning tree trunks. This is exactly, how we saw a small flock, at Puerto Inirida.
Mottled-faced Tamarin Saguinus inustus This diminutive species of monkey, has a very small range in Amazonia, in northwestern Brazil and southeastern Colombia. We enjoyed several encounters with this species, during our time at Mitu. Fortunately, 60-70 % of the range of this species in Colombia, is within the boundaries of indigenous reserves, and this will help tremendously, in protecting this attractive species.
Colombian White-faced Capuchin Cebus capucinus This fairly common species of monkey, occurs in Panama, and the Pacific coast of Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. We saw a small troop well, during our boat-trip in Utria National Park.
Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae While travelling by boat from Utria National Park, to the harbour at El Valle, we sailed through a pod of Humpback Whales, who were migrating southwards. It was a thrilling sight.
Amazon River Dolphin Inia geoffrensis While birding by boat, along the rivers in the Puerto Inirida area, we enjoyed many sightings of this wonderful mammal.

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